your pi uses the SD card as an equivalent to a hard disk. thing is the Architecture of your PI should be ARM basically the same type as Mobile phone but your PC is x86_64 or 32 bit. So i don't think so . Lets see what others think ?
The OS won't work, as it's ARM and the CPU in your PC isn't ARM - or it is very, very unlikely to be an ARM-based CPU. So, no...
Hmm... It's sorta like how the light bulbs you use in your lamp won't work in your refrigerator. Though there are probably better analogies.
Mint should happily read the data on the drive, assuming it has the right permissions. So, there's that... You could copy the ROMs easily enough and whatever you used to play them may well be available for your regular PC.