I tried what you suggested and unfortunately it didn't help me because the error message in both senarios was the same
VLC_VERBOSE=3 vlc /path/to/file
With that you tell vlc to increase the level of verbosity for log messages, you can use: 0 = silent, 1 = error/info, 2 = warning, 3 = debug. Also, you could run a web search for those errors and see what you can find about them that may help you fix your problem. As a last resort, you could try uninstalling and reinstalling vlc, and see if that fixes the issue.
I'm not sure what exactly is audio visualization but since it's a laptop and I haven't installed anything extra or tweaked anything inside the settings I'm gonna say I don't use it
To check whether visualization is enabled or not, in VLC main window click on Tools > Preferences
or press Ctrl + p,
in the settings window click on audio
and make sure that where it reads visualization
is set to disabled, if it's not, then do so by clicking in the drop-down menu and select disable,
save the settings and try playing a video again.