Xubuntu Server??



Peer

Active Member
That doesn't make any sense. Xubuntu is a flavor of Ubuntu just with another desktop. So it doesn't make sense to make a server version of a flavour of Ubuntu to make tasks for which you just don't need a desktop.
 

TechnoJunky

Silver Member
Silver Supporter
Unlike Windows Servers, Linux Servers don't have desktop environments by default. You do everything from the CLI and most often remotely (after initial setup - i.e. account setup and ssh configuration). If you need a desktop environment because you're a home user and it's just more convenient, then use Xubuntu. Again, unlike Windows Servers, there's no licensing issues using Linux so you don't need to buy the Server edition to support more than 10 connections. The servers may come with some "server" software pre-installed, but you can install the same software onto the desktop version (free of charge).
 

lucaslah

New Member
That doesn't make any sense. Xubuntu is a flavor of Ubuntu just with another desktop. So it doesn't make sense to make a server version of a flavour of Ubuntu to make tasks for which you just don't need a desktop.
What do you mean??
 

lucaslah

New Member
Unlike Windows Servers, Linux Servers don't have desktop environments by default. You do everything from the CLI and most often remotely (after initial setup - i.e. account setup and ssh configuration). If you need a desktop environment because you're a home user and it's just more convenient, then use Xubuntu. Again, unlike Windows Servers, there's no licensing issues using Linux so you don't need to buy the Server edition to support more than 10 connections. The servers may come with some "server" software pre-installed, but you can install the same software onto the desktop version (free of charge).
Thanks for that info but what dose CLI Mean??
 

lucaslah

New Member
Thanks for that info but what dose CLI Mean??
Unlike Windows Servers, Linux Servers don't have desktop environments by default. You do everything from the CLI and most often remotely (after initial setup - i.e. account setup and ssh configuration). If you need a desktop environment because you're a home user and it's just more convenient, then use Xubuntu. Again, unlike Windows Servers, there's no licensing issues using Linux so you don't need to buy the Server edition to support more than 10 connections. The servers may come with some "server" software pre-installed, but you can install the same software onto the desktop version (free of charge).
I don't fully under stand what you mean
 

TechnoJunky

Silver Member
Silver Supporter
You install it by going thru the prompts during the installation similar to how you would a regular desktop. However when it's done you only have the command prompt, looks like Terminal. You have to type in all the commands at the command line.

Due to this, you may just want to install Xubuntu instead of server, it can still ACT like a server and do all the stuff that a server does.
 

lucaslah

New Member
You install it by going thru the prompts during the installation similar to how you would a regular desktop. However when it's done you only have the command prompt, looks like Terminal. You have to type in all the commands at the command line.

Due to this, you may just want to install Xubuntu instead of server, it can still ACT like a server and do all the stuff that a server does.
Ok thanks,
so where is the root folder for web server??
 

TechnoJunky

Silver Member
Silver Supporter
The root folder for any Linux or Unix desktop or server (web, database, other) is at /.
 

atanere

Well-Known Member
Hi is there a xubuntu server??
Thanks for that info but what dose CLI Mean??
Well, I will throw in my two cents, and I hope I don't make this thread more confusing. :eek:o_O @lucaslah, you seem to be very new to Linux and not understand these concepts or terminology very well. So I will try to just offer some basic explanations (and others may correct me if I get something wrong).

A "server" is simply a special computer that offers "services"... such as, web server, ftp server, dhcp server, and others. It is simply a computer, but sometimes it is a very specialized computer for hardware... with a lot of hard drive space, with a lot of RAM memory, and with a lot of CPU's so it can better handle heavy loads. A server can also be a simple home computer, but not as powerful as those just mentioned.

A server, or a client (workstation), or a home computer.... all need an "operating system" to run the computer. A few of the most common operating systems for servers are Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOS. As mentioned above, a server does NOT usually have a GUI (Graphical User Interface... in other words, a graphical "desktop"). Instead, servers typically only use a CLI (Command Line Interface... just a simple terminal). If you install the Ubuntu Server edition on your computer, you will not have a graphical desktop. If you want the desktop environment (because it's easier for most people to use)... then you can get one of the many other editions that Ubuntu offers: Xubuntu (XFCE desktop), Kubuntu (KDE desktop), Lubuntu (LXDE desktop, or may be LXQT now), or Ubuntu MATE, or Ubuntu Budgie, etc. These editions are all more designed for users instead of servers, but you can can still use them as servers too.

So, both specialized server hardware and home computers can be servers... but what makes them a server is that they provide "services".... which are programs or applications that run under the operating system. You have asked about "web servers" but there are more than one... two of the most popular are Apache and NGINX. See here to compare many others.


so where is the root folder for web server??
This question can be misunderstood. I wonder if you mean the "document root" of a web server? For example, Apache web servers document root used to commonly be /var/www/ ... but more recently has been changed (typically) to /var/www/html/ . But the document root for NGINX is likely different, as well as other web server programs. When installing server software, you can install it wherever you want, but most people probably follow the conventions and default locations. The document root (and down into subfolders) is where all of your HTML files will be stored to create one or more websites.

I don't run any servers, so I may have some mistakes above, but I hope that this helps your understanding a little, and maybe helps guide you to where you want to go next.

Cheers
 

dos2unix

Active Member
CLI = command line interface. It's the console or terminal where you type in commands.
This is what I use 99% of the time. The only Linux servers I have with "(X)windows" on them are 2 at my house. Xwindows uses some overhead, a little more memory, a little more CPU, and generally it's limited to one Xwindows login at a time. You can use remote-desktop or VNC to have other people logged in with a GUI (graphical user interface), but each one of these sessions also uses more memory and CPU (per session) than a simple SSH session. The data centers I have worked in don't even allow Xwindows to be installed on their servers. Redhat, CentOS, OracleLinux, Scientific, and FedoraServer, SuSE Enterprise don't install a GUI by default, but you can install a GUI on all of them. (but why would you?) None of these servers even have monitors or keyboards connected. There are literally over a thousand physical servers there. (Probably over 3 or 4 thousand if you count virtual machines)

The web root depends on two things, which web server... apache, nginx, tomcat, node, django, etc...
and which distro... Ubuntu, Fedora, Arch, etc...

"most" of the time... apache (sometimes called httpd) has it's webroot at /var/www/html
"most" of the time... nginx uses /var/share/nginx/html

Usually web servers run as systemd process these days, for example...

systemctl enable httpd
systemctl start httpd
systemctl status -l httpd (to see if it is running OK)

You may have to open the firewall as well...
On Redhat/Fedora do this...

firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=http
firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=http --permanent

I'm not as familiar with Ubuntu, but I think it has a similar way to enable services through the firewall.

If you don't know where the webroot is, you can always look at the conf files.
cat /etc/httpd/httpd.conf | grep root look for document root

For nginx, it's "usually" at...

vi /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
 

dos2unix

Active Member
The "servers" we run generally have anywhere from 512GB to 2TB or RAM.
They also have anywhere from 12 CPU cores to 48 cores (96 threads). Often they will have up to 8 or 12 network interfaces (usually 10GB each, even 40GB in some cases). Often these are "teamed" or "bonded" to get more network throughput to a specific IP address. Also if a one network interface goes down, the others will keep pushing traffic. They have internal hard drives that are usually only used for the OS.
They usually use SAN (network based disks) for data storage, some of these servers have 120 TB or more storage. These drives use something called HBAs to connect to disk servers. Often they will have 2 to 4 HBAS per server (so if one goes down the others keep working). Servers also usually have something called IPMI, it is an interface to the BIOS/UEFI from the operating system. You can do things like set the BIOS password from the OS. They usually have a very basic video card, definitely not for gaming.

Usually most servers have a another dedicated network interface that is just only for server management, on HP servers it is called ILO, you can disable network interfaces, reboot the computer, check diagnostics, and do a number of things from the ILO. (Dell and IBM have a similar thing)

The Enterprise servers OS's come with things like clustering, network teaming/binding.
HBA SAN drivers, watchdog processes, more virtualization options, and clustered file system drivers.
Enterprise Linux OS's are usually much older. (Redhat 7.6 still runs the 3.10 kernel). FedoraServer is currently on the 5.1.20 kernel.
These are tested for years before they are released, and considered very stable.

That's not to say you can't do these things on a workstation version, or use a server version as a desktop, ... but why would you want to?
 
Last edited:

TechnoJunky

Silver Member
Silver Supporter
If all you're wanting is to run a web server (at home) and you want a desktop interface for simplicity, you can just install Xubuntu and then Apache or NGENIX on it. That's what I do, except I don't use Xubuntu, I use Neon. I actually currently have a server running Neon which isn't the best idea because it's a cutting edge desktop OS verses a stable Long Term Support (LTS). But it works for a home server, serving up files and web pages to my house. Although it is a desktop OS, I run it headless and log in remotely as you would normally do with a server. I don't have all the bells and whistles installed, like Dos2Linux talks about because I don't need them at home. But I could install them on my desktop server because Linux doesn't care about blocking that type of stuff like MS does.

So maybe you can explain what you're looking to accomplish?
 

lucaslah

New Member
Well, I will throw in my two cents, and I hope I don't make this thread more confusing. :eek:o_O @lucaslah, you seem to be very new to Linux and not understand these concepts or terminology very well. So I will try to just offer some basic explanations (and others may correct me if I get something wrong).

A "server" is simply a special computer that offers "services"... such as, web server, ftp server, dhcp server, and others. It is simply a computer, but sometimes it is a very specialized computer for hardware... with a lot of hard drive space, with a lot of RAM memory, and with a lot of CPU's so it can better handle heavy loads. A server can also be a simple home computer, but not as powerful as those just mentioned.

A server, or a client (workstation), or a home computer.... all need an "operating system" to run the computer. A few of the most common operating systems for servers are Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOS. As mentioned above, a server does NOT usually have a GUI (Graphical User Interface... in other words, a graphical "desktop"). Instead, servers typically only use a CLI (Command Line Interface... just a simple terminal). If you install the Ubuntu Server edition on your computer, you will not have a graphical desktop. If you want the desktop environment (because it's easier for most people to use)... then you can get one of the many other editions that Ubuntu offers: Xubuntu (XFCE desktop), Kubuntu (KDE desktop), Lubuntu (LXDE desktop, or may be LXQT now), or Ubuntu MATE, or Ubuntu Budgie, etc. These editions are all more designed for users instead of servers, but you can can still use them as servers too.

So, both specialized server hardware and home computers can be servers... but what makes them a server is that they provide "services".... which are programs or applications that run under the operating system. You have asked about "web servers" but there are more than one... two of the most popular are Apache and NGINX. See here to compare many others.




This question can be misunderstood. I wonder if you mean the "document root" of a web server? For example, Apache web servers document root used to commonly be /var/www/ ... but more recently has been changed (typically) to /var/www/html/ . But the document root for NGINX is likely different, as well as other web server programs. When installing server software, you can install it wherever you want, but most people probably follow the conventions and default locations. The document root (and down into subfolders) is where all of your HTML files will be stored to create one or more websites.

I don't run any servers, so I may have some mistakes above, but I hope that this helps your understanding a little, and maybe helps guide you to where you want to go next.

Cheers
Ok thanks for this info so I just need to download Apache web server is that right or dose linux come with it?
Thanks
 

TechnoJunky

Silver Member
Silver Supporter
I don't believe any of the OS's come with it, but it's simple to download. On Ubuntu based distros just type 'sudo apt-get install apache2' in terminal.
 

lucaslah

New Member
Well, I will throw in my two cents, and I hope I don't make this thread more confusing. :eek:o_O @lucaslah, you seem to be very new to Linux and not understand these concepts or terminology very well. So I will try to just offer some basic explanations (and others may correct me if I get something wrong).

A "server" is simply a special computer that offers "services"... such as, web server, ftp server, dhcp server, and others. It is simply a computer, but sometimes it is a very specialized computer for hardware... with a lot of hard drive space, with a lot of RAM memory, and with a lot of CPU's so it can better handle heavy loads. A server can also be a simple home computer, but not as powerful as those just mentioned.

A server, or a client (workstation), or a home computer.... all need an "operating system" to run the computer. A few of the most common operating systems for servers are Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOS. As mentioned above, a server does NOT usually have a GUI (Graphical User Interface... in other words, a graphical "desktop"). Instead, servers typically only use a CLI (Command Line Interface... just a simple terminal). If you install the Ubuntu Server edition on your computer, you will not have a graphical desktop. If you want the desktop environment (because it's easier for most people to use)... then you can get one of the many other editions that Ubuntu offers: Xubuntu (XFCE desktop), Kubuntu (KDE desktop), Lubuntu (LXDE desktop, or may be LXQT now), or Ubuntu MATE, or Ubuntu Budgie, etc. These editions are all more designed for users instead of servers, but you can can still use them as servers too.

So, both specialized server hardware and home computers can be servers... but what makes them a server is that they provide "services".... which are programs or applications that run under the operating system. You have asked about "web servers" but there are more than one... two of the most popular are Apache and NGINX. See here to compare many others.




This question can be misunderstood. I wonder if you mean the "document root" of a web server? For example, Apache web servers document root used to commonly be /var/www/ ... but more recently has been changed (typically) to /var/www/html/ . But the document root for NGINX is likely different, as well as other web server programs. When installing server software, you can install it wherever you want, but most people probably follow the conventions and default locations. The document root (and down into subfolders) is where all of your HTML files will be stored to create one or more websites.

I don't run any servers, so I may have some mistakes above, but I hope that this helps your understanding a little, and maybe helps guide you to where you want to go next.

Cheers
Ok thanks found the root folder now so thanks one more thing
How do I setup FPT accounts,
Got the web server sorted
Thanks
 

atanere

Well-Known Member
Ok thanks found the root folder now so thanks one more thing
How do I setup FPT accounts,
Got the web server sorted
Thanks
Well, I'm not a server guy, so @TechnoJunky or some of the others will be better equipped to describe how to setup any type of server. By the way, I'm sure you mean FTP, not FPT. :D

With my limited knowledge, I just know you should be careful with FTP... the basic stuff is not very secure. There is SFTP (Secure FTP) instead, and maybe other solutions as well.

Good luck!
 

TechnoJunky

Silver Member
Silver Supporter
As @atanere says, you should use SFTP. Plain FTP is very unsecure. It may not matter on a home network if your router locks down your network well enough, but setting up SFTP is simple if you're just setting it up for yourself to access each of your computers. You'll need to install openssh-server, this allows you to SSH into your server and also SFTP into it. Once installed all you do is run 'sftp (or ssh) [email protected]' (or IP address). It'll ask for your password and to approve the SSH key, and then you're in. If you need to set it up for multiple users to connect, check out this article https://articlebin.michaelmilette.com/setting-up-openssh-sftp-on-ubuntu/.
 

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