Just in case of any misapprehension on your part, we are not an official arm nor organ of Linux, just scored the dot org name - we are manned by volunteer staff who share a love of Linux and have varying skills in various departments.
So given the number of computer brands and models out there, we have no more idea of what is best for your Lenovo Yoga 510 than we do on HPs, Dells, Acers, Asus &c.
There are over 500 Linux out there, so your question is a bit like "How long is a piece of string?" It varies.
I would suggest you arm yourself with a couple of USB sticks and go searching for what you like the look of.
DistroWatch.com is a starting point, and its page hit tab shows the most visited home sites for about 300 or so LInux. Top 50 or so are likely to be within your reach.
Be sure you have a Recovery stick or install disk for your Windows 10 before you proceed to install anything.
I've recently bought a 510-14AST and configured it dual boot with Fedora (25) Linux. So its running a recent kernel. Everything works (sound, video - both with Xorg and wayland, network) apart from the touchscreen screen rotation firewire I can live without the screen rotation and firewire...