You have things like apt and aptitude for package management on Debian based systems, but nothing quite like yast. There is tasksel - which allows you to choose certain types of packages to install/uninstall.
There was a project called yast4debian, which aimed to port yast to work on Debian and Debian derived distro's. The last I saw, the project was dormant, with nobody leading/maintaining the project.
A quick bit of duckduckgo-fu seems to indicate that the yast4debian project has been completely abandoned!