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Hi im so stupid Can you help me with DHCP

Genemae

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I am very new to Linux and I tried to install Linux Terminal Server but it did not work there was a problem with DHCP and I am confused with IP addresses Please help


and help me with the IP addresses subnet mask i don't know where are you getting those numbers
I know i am dumb about this but i want to learn thank you



This is what i get when i type "
systemctl status dnsmasq.service

dnsmasq.service - dnsmasq - A lightweight DHCP and caching DNS server
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/dnsmasq.service; enabled; vendor preset>
Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Wed 2022-11-16 21:00:20 CET; 1min >
Process: 5101 ExecStartPre=/etc/init.d/dnsmasq checkconfig (code=exited, sta>
CPU: 31ms

nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM systemd[1]: Starting dnsmasq - A lightweight DHCP>
nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM dnsmasq[5108]: Bad address in --address at line 7>
nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM dnsmasq[5108]: FAILED to start up
nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM systemd[1]: dnsmasq.service: Control process exit>
nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM systemd[1]: dnsmasq.service: Failed with result '>
nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM systemd[1]: Failed to start dnsmasq - A lightweig>

I really want to learn but i am a beginner thansk for helping and teaching me
 

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I don't have an answer, but what does that line contain? There's an error with a line number.

I don't know what software you have available, but you should be able to run the following to find the line number:

Code:
cat -n /etc/dnsmasq.conf

If possible, post text instead of screenshots. It's easier on everyone involved. It also can help to format the text, with things like code tags.
 
I don't have an answer, but what does that line contain? There's an error with a line number.

I don't know what software you have available, but you should be able to run the following to find the line number:

Code:
cat -n /etc/dnsmasq.conf

If possible, post text instead of screenshots. It's easier on everyone involved. It also can help to format the text, with things like code tags.
This is what i get when i type "
systemctl status dnsmasq.service
dnsmasq.service - dnsmasq - A lightweight DHCP and caching DNS server
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/dnsmasq.service; enabled; vendor preset>
Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Wed 2022-11-16 21:00:20 CET; 1min >
Process: 5101 ExecStartPre=/etc/init.d/dnsmasq checkconfig (code=exited, sta>
CPU: 31ms
nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM systemd[1]: Starting dnsmasq - A lightweight DHCP>
nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM dnsmasq[5108]: Bad address in --address at line 7>
nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM dnsmasq[5108]: FAILED to start up
nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM systemd[1]: dnsmasq.service: Control process exit>
nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM systemd[1]: dnsmasq.service: Failed with result '>
nov. 16 21:00:20 Linux-Exam-VM systemd[1]: Failed to start dnsmasq - A lightweig>
 
have an answer, but what does that line contain? There's an error with a line number.

I don't know what software you have available, but you should be able to run the following to find the line number:

Code:
cat -n /etc/dnsmasq.conf
If possible, post text instead of screenshots. It's easier on everyone involved. It also can help to form
 
That's not actually what I asked for information. It might be helpful, because now it's showing an error on another line, specifically line 7. However, I'm a one problem at a time kinda guy.

Without knowing what those lines contain, I'm not sure that anyone can help you.
 
That's not actually what I asked for information. It might be helpful, because now it's showing an error on another line, specifically line 7. However, I'm a one problem at a time kinda guy.

Without knowing what those lines contain, I'm not sure that anyone can help you.
Hi i enter the command you gave me
Sorry about that and thanks for helping i appreciate that
cat -n /etc/dnsmasq.conf

1 # Configuration file for dnsmasq.
2 #
3 # Format is one option per line, legal options are the same
4 # as the long options legal on the command line. See
5 # "/usr/sbin/dnsmasq --help" or "man 8 dnsmasq" for details.
6
7 # Listen on this specific port instead of the standard DNS port
8 # (53). Setting this to zero completely disables DNS function,
9 # leaving only DHCP and/or TFTP.
10 port=53
11
12 # The following two options make you a better netizen, since they
13 # tell dnsmasq to filter out queries which the public DNS cannot
14 # answer, and which load the servers (especially the root servers)
15 # unnecessarily. If you have a dial-on-demand link they also stop
16 # these requests from bringing up the link unnecessarily.
17
18 # Never forward plain names (without a dot or domain part)
19 domain-needed
20 # Never forward addresses in the non-routed address spaces.
21 bogus-priv
22
23 # Uncomment these to enable DNSSEC validation and caching:
24 # (Requires dnsmasq to be built with DNSSEC option.)
25 #conf-file=%%PREFIX%%/share/dnsmasq/trust-anchors.conf
26 #dnssec
27
28 # Replies which are not DNSSEC signed may be legitimate, because the domain
29 # is unsigned, or may be forgeries. Setting this option tells dnsmasq to
30 # check that an unsigned reply is OK, by finding a secure proof that a DS
31 # record somewhere between the root and the domain does not exist.
32 # The cost of setting this is that even queries in unsigned domains will need
33 # one or more extra DNS queries to verify.
34 #dnssec-check-unsigned
35
36 # Uncomment this to filter useless windows-originated DNS requests
37 # which can trigger dial-on-demand links needlessly.
38 # Note that (amongst other things) this blocks all SRV requests,
39 # so don't use it if you use eg Kerberos, SIP, XMMP or Google-talk.
40 # This option only affects forwarding, SRV records originating for
41 # dnsmasq (via srv-host= lines) are not suppressed by it.
42 #filterwin2k
43
44 # Change this line if you want dns to get its upstream servers from
45 # somewhere other that /etc/resolv.conf
46 #resolv-file=
47
48 # By default, dnsmasq will send queries to any of the upstream
49 # servers it knows about and tries to favour servers to are known
50 # to be up. Uncommenting this forces dnsmasq to try each query
51 # with each server strictly in the order they appear in
52 # /etc/resolv.conf
53 strict-order
54
55 # If you don't want dnsmasq to read /etc/resolv.conf or any other
56 # file, getting its servers from this file instead (see below), then
57 # uncomment this.
58 #no-resolv
59
60 # If you don't want dnsmasq to poll /etc/resolv.conf or other resolv
61 # files for changes and re-read them then uncomment this.
62 #no-poll
63
64 # Add other name servers here, with domain specs if they are for
65 # non-public domains.
66 #server=/localnet/192.168.0.1
67
68 # Example of routing PTR queries to nameservers: this will send all
69 # address->name queries for 192.168.3/24 to nameserver 10.1.2.3
70 #server=/3.168.192.in-addr.arpa/10.1.2.3
71
72 # Add local-only domains here, queries in these domains are answered
73 # from /etc/hosts or DHCP only.
74 #local=/localnet/
75
76 # Add domains which you want to force to an IP address here.
77 # The example below send any host in double-click.net to a local
78 # web-server.
79 #address=/double-click.net/127.0.0.1
80
81 # --address (and --server) work with IPv6 addresses too.
82 #address=/www.thekelleys.org.uk/fe80::20d:60ff:fe36:f83
83
84 # Add the IPs of all queries to yahoo.com, google.com, and their
85 # subdomains to the vpn and search ipsets:
86 #ipset=/yahoo.com/google.com/vpn,search
87
88 # You can control how dnsmasq talks to a server: this forces
89 # queries to 10.1.2.3 to be routed via eth1
90 # server=10.1.2.3@eth1
91
92 # and this sets the source (ie local) address used to talk to
93 # 10.1.2.3 to 192.168.1.1 port 55 (there must be an interface with that
94 # IP on the machine, obviously).
95 # server=[email protected]#55
96
97 # If you want dnsmasq to change uid and gid to something other
98 # than the default, edit the following lines.
99 #user=
100 #group=
101
102 # If you want dnsmasq to listen for DHCP and DNS requests only on
103 # specified interfaces (and the loopback) give the name of the
104 # interface (eg eth0) here.
105 # Repeat the line for more than one interface.
106 #interface=
107 # Or you can specify which interface _not_ to listen on
108 #except-interface=
109 # Or which to listen on by address (remember to include 127.0.0.1 if
110 # you use this.)
111 #listen-address=
112 # If you want dnsmasq to provide only DNS service on an interface,
113 # configure it as shown above, and then use the following line to
114 # disable DHCP and TFTP on it.
115 #no-dhcp-interface=
116
117 # On systems which support it, dnsmasq binds the wildcard address,
118 # even when it is listening on only some interfaces. It then discards
119 # requests that it shouldn't reply to. This has the advantage of
120 # working even when interfaces come and go and change address. If you
121 # want dnsmasq to really bind only the interfaces it is listening on,
122 # uncomment this option. About the only time you may need this is when
123 # running another nameserver on the same machine.
124 #bind-interfaces
125
126 # If you don't want dnsmasq to read /etc/hosts, uncomment the
127 # following line.
128 #no-hosts
129 # or if you want it to read another file, as well as /etc/hosts, use
130 # this.
131 #addn-hosts=/etc/banner_add_hosts
132
133 # Set this (and domain: see below) if you want to have a domain
134 # automatically added to simple names in a hosts-file.
135 expand-hosts
136
137 # Set the domain for dnsmasq. this is optional, but if it is set, it
138 # does the following things.
139 # 1) Allows DHCP hosts to have fully qualified domain names, as long
140 # as the domain part matches this setting.
141 # 2) Sets the "domain" DHCP option thereby potentially setting the
142 # domain of all systems configured by DHCP
143 # 3) Provides the domain part for "expand-hosts"
144 #domain=thekelleys.org.uk
145 domain=example.com
146 # Set a different domain for a particular subnet
147 #domain=wireless.thekelleys.org.uk,192.168.2.0/24
148
149 # Set Listen address
150 listen-address=127.0.0.1 # Set to Server IP for network responses
151
152 # Same idea, but range rather then subnet
153 #domain=reserved.thekelleys.org.uk,192.68.3.100,192.168.3.200
154
155 # Uncomment this to enable the integrated DHCP server, you need
156 # to supply the range of addresses available for lease and optionally
157 # a lease time. If you have more than one network, you will need to
158 # repeat this for each network on which you want to supply DHCP
159 # service.
160 #dhcp-range=192.168.0.50,192.168.0.150,12h
161
162 # This is an example of a DHCP range where the netmask is given. This
163 # is needed for networks we reach the dnsmasq DHCP server via a relay
164 # agent. If you don't know what a DHCP relay agent is, you probably
165 # don't need to worry about this.
166 #dhcp-range=192.168.0.50,192.168.0.150,255.255.255.0,12h
167
168 # This is an example of a DHCP range which sets a tag, so that
169 # some DHCP options may be set only for this network.
170 #dhcp-range=set:red,192.168.0.50,192.168.0.150
171
172 # Use this DHCP range only when the tag "green" is set.
173 #dhcp-range=tag:green,192.168.0.50,192.168.0.150,12h
174
175 # Specify a subnet which can't be used for dynamic address allocation,
176 # is available for hosts with matching --dhcp-host lines. Note that
177 # dhcp-host declarations will be ignored unless there is a dhcp-range
178 # of some type for the subnet in question.
179 # In this case the netmask is implied (it comes from the network
180 # configuration on the machine running dnsmasq) it is possible to give
181 # an explicit netmask instead.
182 #dhcp-range=192.168.0.0,static
183
184 # Enable DHCPv6. Note that the prefix-length does not need to be specified
185 # and defaults to 64 if missing/
186 #dhcp-range=1234::2, 1234::500, 64, 12h
187
188 # Do Router Advertisements, BUT NOT DHCP for this subnet.
189 #dhcp-range=1234::, ra-only
190
191 # Do Router Advertisements, BUT NOT DHCP for this subnet, also try and
192 # add names to the DNS for the IPv6 address of SLAAC-configured dual-stack
193 # hosts. Use the DHCPv4 lease to derive the name, network segment and
194 # MAC address and assume that the host will also have an
195 # IPv6 address calculated using the SLAAC algorithm.
196 #dhcp-range=1234::, ra-names
197
198 # Do Router Advertisements, BUT NOT DHCP for this subnet.
199 # Set the lifetime to 46 hours. (Note: minimum lifetime is 2 hours.)
200 #dhcp-range=1234::, ra-only, 48h
201
202 # Do DHCP and Router Advertisements for this subnet. Set the A bit in the RA
203 # so that clients can use SLAAC addresses as well as DHCP ones.
204 #dhcp-range=1234::2, 1234::500, slaac
205
206 # Do Router Advertisements and stateless DHCP for this subnet. Clients will
207 # not get addresses from DHCP, but they will get other configuration information.
208 # They will use SLAAC for addresses.
209 #dhcp-range=1234::, ra-stateless
210
211 # Do stateless DHCP, SLAAC, and generate DNS names for SLAAC addresses
212 # from DHCPv4 leases.
213 #dhcp-range=1234::, ra-stateless, ra-names
214
215 # Do router advertisements for all subnets where we're doing DHCPv6
216 # Unless overridden by ra-stateless, ra-names, et al, the router
217 # advertisements will have the M and O bits set, so that the clients
218 # get addresses and configuration from DHCPv6, and the A bit reset, so the
219 # clients don't use SLAAC addresses.
220 #enable-ra
221
222 # Supply parameters for specified hosts using DHCP. There are lots
223 # of valid alternatives, so we will give examples of each. Note that
224 # IP addresses DO NOT have to be in the range given above, they just
225 # need to be on the same network. The order of the parameters in these
226 # do not matter, it's permissible to give name, address and MAC in any
227 # order.
228
229 # Always allocate the host with Ethernet address 11:22:33:44:55:66
230 # The IP address 192.168.0.60
231 #dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,192.168.0.60
232
233 # Always set the name of the host with hardware address
234 # 11:22:33:44:55:66 to be "fred"
235 #dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,fred
236
237 # Always give the host with Ethernet address 11:22:33:44:55:66
238 # the name fred and IP address 192.168.0.60 and lease time 45 minutes
239 #dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,fred,192.168.0.60,45m
240
241 # Give a host with Ethernet address 11:22:33:44:55:66 or
242 # 12:34:56:78:90:12 the IP address 192.168.0.60. Dnsmasq will assume
243 # that these two Ethernet interfaces will never be in use at the same
244 # time, and give the IP address to the second, even if it is already
245 # in use by the first. Useful for laptops with wired and wireless
246 # addresses.
247 #dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,12:34:56:78:90:12,192.168.0.60
248
249 # Give the machine which says its name is "bert" IP address
250 # 192.168.0.70 and an infinite lease
251 #dhcp-host=bert,192.168.0.70,infinite
252
253 # Always give the host with client identifier 01:02:02:04
254 # the IP address 192.168.0.60
255 #dhcp-host=id:01:02:02:04,192.168.0.60
256
257 # Always give the InfiniBand interface with hardware address
258 # 80:00:00:48:fe:80:00:00:00:00:00:00:f4:52:14:03:00:28:05:81 the
259 # ip address 192.168.0.61. The client id is derived from the prefix
260 # ff:00:00:00:00:00:02:00:00:02:c9:00 and the last 8 pairs of
261 # hex digits of the hardware address.
262 #dhcp-host=id:ff:00:00:00:00:00:02:00:00:02:c9:00:f4:52:14:03:00:28:05:81,192.168.0.61
263
264 # Always give the host with client identifier "marjorie"
265 # the IP address 192.168.0.60
266 #dhcp-host=id:marjorie,192.168.0.60
267
268 # Enable the address given for "judge" in /etc/hosts
269 # to be given to a machine presenting the name "judge" when
270 # it asks for a DHCP lease.
271 #dhcp-host=judge
272
273 # Never offer DHCP service to a machine whose Ethernet
274 # address is 11:22:33:44:55:66
275 #dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,ignore
276
277 # Ignore any client-id presented by the machine with Ethernet
278 # address 11:22:33:44:55:66. This is useful to prevent a machine
279 # being treated differently when running under different OS's or
280 # between PXE boot and OS boot.
281 #dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,id:*
282
283 # Send extra options which are tagged as "red" to
284 # the machine with Ethernet address 11:22:33:44:55:66
285 #dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,set:red
286
287 # Send extra options which are tagged as "red" to
288 # any machine with Ethernet address starting 11:22:33:
289 #dhcp-host=11:22:33:*:*:*,set:red
290
291 # Give a fixed IPv6 address and name to client with
292 # DUID 00:01:00:01:16:d2:83:fc:92:d4:19:e2:d8:b2
293 # Note the MAC addresses CANNOT be used to identify DHCPv6 clients.
294 # Note also that the [] around the IPv6 address are obligatory.
295 #dhcp-host=id:00:01:00:01:16:d2:83:fc:92:d4:19:e2:d8:b2, fred, [1234::5]
296
297 # Ignore any clients which are not specified in dhcp-host lines
298 # or /etc/ethers. Equivalent to ISC "deny unknown-clients".
299 # This relies on the special "known" tag which is set when
300 # a host is matched.
301 #dhcp-ignore=tag:!known
302
303 # Send extra options which are tagged as "red" to any machine whose
304 # DHCP vendorclass string includes the substring "Linux"
305 #dhcp-vendorclass=set:red,Linux
306
307 # Send extra options which are tagged as "red" to any machine one
308 # of whose DHCP userclass strings includes the substring "accounts"
309 #dhcp-userclass=set:red,accounts
310
311 # Send extra options which are tagged as "red" to any machine whose
312 # MAC address matches the pattern.
313 #dhcp-mac=set:red,00:60:8C:*:*:*
314
315 # If this line is uncommented, dnsmasq will read /etc/ethers and act
316 # on the ethernet-address/IP pairs found there just as if they had
317 # been given as --dhcp-host options. Useful if you keep
318 # MAC-address/host mappings there for other purposes.
319 #read-ethers
320
321 # Send options to hosts which ask for a DHCP lease.
322 # See RFC 2132 for details of available options.
323 # Common options can be given to dnsmasq by name:
324 # run "dnsmasq --help dhcp" to get a list.
325 # Note that all the common settings, such as netmask and
326 # broadcast address, DNS server and default route, are given
327 # sane defaults by dnsmasq. You very likely will not need
328 # any dhcp-options. If you use Windows clients and Samba, there
329 # are some options which are recommended, they are detailed at the
330 # end of this section.
331
332 # Override the default route supplied by dnsmasq, which assumes the
333 # router is the same machine as the one running dnsmasq.
334 #dhcp-option=3,1.2.3.4
335
336 # Do the same thing, but using the option name
337 #dhcp-option=option:router,1.2.3.4
338
339 # Override the default route supplied by dnsmasq and send no default
340 # route at all. Note that this only works for the options sent by
341 # default (1, 3, 6, 12, 28) the same line will send a zero-length option
342 # for all other option numbers.
343 #dhcp-option=3
344
345 # Set the NTP time server addresses to 192.168.0.4 and 10.10.0.5
346 #dhcp-option=option:ntp-server,192.168.0.4,10.10.0.5
347
348 # Send DHCPv6 option. Note [] around IPv6 addresses.
349 #dhcp-option=option6:dns-server,[1234::77],[1234::88]
350
351 # Send DHCPv6 option for namservers as the machine running
352 # dnsmasq and another.
353 #dhcp-option=option6:dns-server,[::],[1234::88]
354
355 # Ask client to poll for option changes every six hours. (RFC4242)
356 #dhcp-option=option6:information-refresh-time,6h
357
358 # Set option 58 client renewal time (T1). Defaults to half of the
359 # lease time if not specified. (RFC2132)
360 #dhcp-option=option:T1,1m
361
362 # Set option 59 rebinding time (T2). Defaults to 7/8 of the
363 # lease time if not specified. (RFC2132)
364 #dhcp-option=option:T2,2m
365
366 # Set the NTP time server address to be the same machine as
367 # is running dnsmasq
368 #dhcp-option=42,0.0.0.0
369
370 # Set the NIS domain name to "welly"
371 #dhcp-option=40,welly
372
373 # Set the default time-to-live to 50
374 #dhcp-option=23,50
375
376 # Set the "all subnets are local" flag
377 #dhcp-option=27,1
378
379 # Send the etherboot magic flag and then etherboot options (a string).
380 #dhcp-option=128,e4:45:74:68:00:00
381 #dhcp-option=129,NIC=eepro100
382
383 # Specify an option which will only be sent to the "red" network
384 # (see dhcp-range for the declaration of the "red" network)
385 # Note that the tag: part must precede the option: part.
386 #dhcp-option = tag:red, option:ntp-server, 192.168.1.1
387
388 # The following DHCP options set up dnsmasq in the same way as is specified
389 # for the ISC dhcpcd in
390 # http://www.samba.org/samba/ftp/docs/textdocs/DHCP-Server-Configuration.txt
391 # adapted for a typical dnsmasq installation where the host running
392 # dnsmasq is also the host running samba.
393 # you may want to uncomment some or all of them if you use
394 # Windows clients and Samba.
395 #dhcp-option=19,0 # option ip-forwarding off
396 #dhcp-option=44,0.0.0.0 # set netbios-over-TCP/IP nameserver(s) aka WINS server(s)
397 #dhcp-option=45,0.0.0.0 # netbios datagram distribution server
398 #dhcp-option=46,8 # netbios node type
399
400 # Send an empty WPAD option. This may be REQUIRED to get windows 7 to behave.
401 #dhcp-option=252,"\n"
402
403 # Send RFC-3397 DNS domain search DHCP option. WARNING: Your DHCP client
404 # probably doesn't support this......
405 #dhcp-option=option:domain-search,eng.apple.com,marketing.apple.com
406
407 # Send RFC-3442 classless static routes (note the netmask encoding)
408 #dhcp-option=121,192.168.1.0/24,1.2.3.4,10.0.0.0/8,5.6.7.8
409
410 # Send vendor-class specific options encapsulated in DHCP option 43.
411 # The meaning of the options is defined by the vendor-class so
412 # options are sent only when the client supplied vendor class
413 # matches the class given here. (A substring match is OK, so "MSFT"
414 # matches "MSFT" and "MSFT 5.0"). This example sets the
415 # mtftp address to 0.0.0.0 for PXEClients.
416 #dhcp-option=vendor:pXEClient,1,0.0.0.0
417
418 # Send microsoft-specific option to tell windows to release the DHCP lease
419 # when it shuts down. Note the "i" flag, to tell dnsmasq to send the
420 # value as a four-byte integer - that's what microsoft wants. See
421 # http://technet2.microsoft.com/Windo...d2d4-49f0-96d6-4b7414ecfaae1033.mspx?mfr=true
422 #dhcp-option=vendor:MSFT,2,1i
423
424 # Send the Encapsulated-vendor-class ID needed by some configurations of
425 # Etherboot to allow is to recognise the DHCP server.
426 #dhcp-option=vendor:Etherboot,60,"Etherboot"
427
428 # Send options to PXELinux. Note that we need to send the options even
429 # though they don't appear in the parameter request list, so we need
430 # to use dhcp-option-force here.
431 # See http://syslinux.zytor.com/pxe.php#special for details.
432 # Magic number - needed before anything else is recognised
433 #dhcp-option-force=208,f1:00:74:7e
434 # Configuration file name
435 #dhcp-option-force=209,configs/common
436 # Path prefix
437 #dhcp-option-force=210,/tftpboot/pxelinux/files/
438 # Reboot time. (Note 'i' to send 32-bit value)
439 #dhcp-option-force=211,30i
440
441 # Set the boot filename for netboot/PXE. You will only need
442 # this if you want to boot machines over the network and you will need
443 # a TFTP server; either dnsmasq's built-in TFTP server or an
444 # external one. (See below for how to enable the TFTP server.)
445 #dhcp-boot=pxelinux.0
446
447 # The same as above, but use custom tftp-server instead machine running dnsmasq
448 #dhcp-boot=pxelinux,server.name,192.168.1.100
449
450 # Boot for iPXE. The idea is to send two different
451 # filenames, the first loads iPXE, and the second tells iPXE what to
452 # load. The dhcp-match sets the ipxe tag for requests from iPXE.
453 #dhcp-boot=undionly.kpxe
454 #dhcp-match=set:ipxe,175 # iPXE sends a 175 option.
455 #dhcp-boot=tag:ipxe,http://boot.ipxe.org/demo/boot.php
456
457 # Encapsulated options for iPXE. All the options are
458 # encapsulated within option 175
459 #dhcp-option=encap:175, 1, 5b # priority code
460 #dhcp-option=encap:175, 176, 1b # no-proxydhcp
461 #dhcp-option=encap:175, 177, string # bus-id
462 #dhcp-option=encap:175, 189, 1b # BIOS drive code
463 #dhcp-option=encap:175, 190, user # iSCSI username
464 #dhcp-option=encap:175, 191, pass # iSCSI password
465
466 # Test for the architecture of a netboot client. PXE clients are
467 # supposed to send their architecture as option 93. (See RFC 4578)
468 #dhcp-match=peecees, option:client-arch, 0 #x86-32
469 #dhcp-match=itanics, option:client-arch, 2 #IA64
470 #dhcp-match=hammers, option:client-arch, 6 #x86-64
471 #dhcp-match=mactels, option:client-arch, 7 #EFI x86-64
472
473 # Do real PXE, rather than just booting a single file, this is an
474 # alternative to dhcp-boot.
475 #pxe-prompt="What system shall I netboot?"
476 # or with timeout before first available action is taken:
477 #pxe-prompt="Press F8 for menu.", 60
478
479 # Available boot services. for PXE.
480 #pxe-service=x86PC, "Boot from local disk"
481
482 # Loads <tftp-root>/pxelinux.0 from dnsmasq TFTP server.
483 #pxe-service=x86PC, "Install Linux", pxelinux
484
485 # Loads <tftp-root>/pxelinux.0 from TFTP server at 1.2.3.4.
486 # Beware this fails on old PXE ROMS.
487 #pxe-service=x86PC, "Install Linux", pxelinux, 1.2.3.4
488
489 # Use bootserver on network, found my multicast or broadcast.
490 #pxe-service=x86PC, "Install windows from RIS server", 1
491
492 # Use bootserver at a known IP address.
493 #pxe-service=x86PC, "Install windows from RIS server", 1, 1.2.3.4
494
495 # If you have multicast-FTP available,
496 # information for that can be passed in a similar way using options 1
497 # to 5. See page 19 of
498 # http://download.intel.com/design/archives/wfm/downloads/pxespec.pdf
499
 
This is the continuation :

500
501 # Enable dnsmasq's built-in TFTP server
502 #enable-tftp
503
504 # Set the root directory for files available via FTP.
505 #tftp-root=/var/ftpd
506
507 # Do not abort if the tftp-root is unavailable
508 #tftp-no-fail
509
510 # Make the TFTP server more secure: with this set, only files owned by
511 # the user dnsmasq is running as will be send over the net.
512 #tftp-secure
513
514 # This option stops dnsmasq from negotiating a larger blocksize for TFTP
515 # transfers. It will slow things down, but may rescue some broken TFTP
516 # clients.
517 #tftp-no-blocksize
518
519 # Set the boot file name only when the "red" tag is set.
520 #dhcp-boot=tag:red,pxelinux.red-net
521
522 # An example of dhcp-boot with an external TFTP server: the name and IP
523 # address of the server are given after the filename.
524 # Can fail with old PXE ROMS. Overridden by --pxe-service.
525 #dhcp-boot=/var/ftpd/pxelinux.0,boothost,192.168.0.3
526
527 # If there are multiple external tftp servers having a same name
528 # (using /etc/hosts) then that name can be specified as the
529 # tftp_servername (the third option to dhcp-boot) and in that
530 # case dnsmasq resolves this name and returns the resultant IP
531 # addresses in round robin fashion. This facility can be used to
532 # load balance the tftp load among a set of servers.
533 #dhcp-boot=/var/ftpd/pxelinux.0,boothost,tftp_server_name
534
535 # Set the limit on DHCP leases, the default is 150
536 #dhcp-lease-max=150
537
538 # The DHCP server needs somewhere on disk to keep its lease database.
539 # This defaults to a sane location, but if you want to change it, use
540 # the line below.
541 #dhcp-leasefile=/var/lib/misc/dnsmasq.leases
542
543 # Set the DHCP server to authoritative mode. In this mode it will barge in
544 # and take over the lease for any client which broadcasts on the network,
545 # whether it has a record of the lease or not. This avoids long timeouts
546 # when a machine wakes up on a new network. DO NOT enable this if there's
547 # the slightest chance that you might end up accidentally configuring a DHCP
548 # server for your campus/company accidentally. The ISC server uses
549 # the same option, and this URL provides more information:
550 # http://www.isc.org/files/auth.html
551 #dhcp-authoritative
552
553 # Set the DHCP server to enable DHCPv4 Rapid Commit Option per RFC 4039.
554 # In this mode it will respond to a DHCPDISCOVER message including a Rapid Commit
555 # option with a DHCPACK including a Rapid Commit option and fully committed address
556 # and configuration information. This must only be enabled if either the server is
557 # the only server for the subnet, or multiple servers are present and they each
558 # commit a binding for all clients.
559 #dhcp-rapid-commit
560
561 # Run an executable when a DHCP lease is created or destroyed.
562 # The arguments sent to the script are "add" or "del",
563 # then the MAC address, the IP address and finally the hostname
564 # if there is one.
565 #dhcp-script=/bin/echo
566
567 # Set the cachesize here.
568 #cache-size=150
569
570 # If you want to disable negative caching, uncomment this.
571 #no-negcache
572
573 # Normally responses which come from /etc/hosts and the DHCP lease
574 # file have Time-To-Live set as zero, which conventionally means
575 # do not cache further. If you are happy to trade lower load on the
576 # server for potentially stale date, you can set a time-to-live (in
577 # seconds) here.
578 #local-ttl=
579
580 # If you want dnsmasq to detect attempts by Verisign to send queries
581 # to unregistered .com and .net hosts to its sitefinder service and
582 # have dnsmasq instead return the correct NXDOMAIN response, uncomment
583 # this line. You can add similar lines to do the same for other
584 # registries which have implemented wildcard A records.
585 #bogus-nxdomain=64.94.110.11
586
587 # If you want to fix up DNS results from upstream servers, use the
588 # alias option. This only works for IPv4.
589 # This alias makes a result of 1.2.3.4 appear as 5.6.7.8
590 #alias=1.2.3.4,5.6.7.8
591 # and this maps 1.2.3.x to 5.6.7.x
592 #alias=1.2.3.0,5.6.7.0,255.255.255.0
593 # and this maps 192.168.0.10->192.168.0.40 to 10.0.0.10->10.0.0.40
594 #alias=192.168.0.10-192.168.0.40,10.0.0.0,255.255.255.0
595
596 # Change these lines if you want dnsmasq to serve MX records.
597
598 # Return an MX record named "maildomain.com" with target
599 # servermachine.com and preference 50
600 #mx-host=maildomain.com,servermachine.com,50
601
602 # Set the default target for MX records created using the localmx option.
603 #mx-target=servermachine.com
604
605 # Return an MX record pointing to the mx-target for all local
606 # machines.
607 #localmx
608
609 # Return an MX record pointing to itself for all local machines.
610 #selfmx
611
612 # Change the following lines if you want dnsmasq to serve SRV
613 # records. These are useful if you want to serve ldap requests for
614 # Active Directory and other windows-originated DNS requests.
615 # See RFC 2782.
616 # You may add multiple srv-host lines.
617 # The fields are <name>,<target>,<port>,<priority>,<weight>
618 # If the domain part if missing from the name (so that is just has the
619 # service and protocol sections) then the domain given by the domain=
620 # config option is used. (Note that expand-hosts does not need to be
621 # set for this to work.)
622
623 # A SRV record sending LDAP for the example.com domain to
624 # ldapserver.example.com port 389
625 #srv-host=_ldap._tcp.example.com,ldapserver.example.com,389
626
627 # A SRV record sending LDAP for the example.com domain to
628 # ldapserver.example.com port 389 (using domain=)
629 #domain=example.com
630 #srv-host=_ldap._tcp,ldapserver.example.com,389
631
632 # Two SRV records for LDAP, each with different priorities
633 #srv-host=_ldap._tcp.example.com,ldapserver.example.com,389,1
634 #srv-host=_ldap._tcp.example.com,ldapserver.example.com,389,2
635
636 # A SRV record indicating that there is no LDAP server for the domain
637 # example.com
638 #srv-host=_ldap._tcp.example.com
639
640 # The following line shows how to make dnsmasq serve an arbitrary PTR
641 # record. This is useful for DNS-SD. (Note that the
642 # domain-name expansion done for SRV records _does_not
643 # occur for PTR records.)
644 #ptr-record=_http._tcp.dns-sd-services,"New Employee Page._http._tcp.dns-sd-services"
645
646 # Change the following lines to enable dnsmasq to serve TXT records.
647 # These are used for things like SPF and zeroconf. (Note that the
648 # domain-name expansion done for SRV records _does_not
649 # occur for TXT records.)
650
651 #Example SPF.
652 #txt-record=example.com,"v=spf1 a -all"
653
654 #Example zeroconf
655 #txt-record=_http._tcp.example.com,name=value,paper=A4
656
657 # Provide an alias for a "local" DNS name. Note that this _only_ works
658 # for targets which are names from DHCP or /etc/hosts. Give host
659 # "bert" another name, bertrand
660 #cname=bertand,bert
661
662 # For debugging purposes, log each DNS query as it passes through
663 # dnsmasq.
664 #log-queries
665
666 # Log lots of extra information about DHCP transactions.
667 #log-dhcp
668
669 # Include another lot of configuration options.
670 #conf-file=/etc/dnsmasq.more.conf
671 #conf-dir=/etc/dnsmasq.d
672
673 # Include all the files in a directory except those ending in .bak
674 #conf-dir=/etc/dnsmasq.d,.bak
675
676 # Include all files in a directory which end in .conf
677 #conf-dir=/etc/dnsmasq.d/,*.conf
678
679 # If a DHCP client claims that its name is "wpad", ignore that.
680 # This fixes a security hole. see CERT Vulnerability VU#598349
681 #dhcp-name-match=set:wpad-ignore,wpad
682 #dhcp-ignore-names=tag:wpad-ignore
683
 
I really only needed the information around line 75, which is curiously blank... So, that makes me wonder if the output error is not counting blank lines.

But, folks can now see the output of the file. (From your image, your first is an error on line 75.)

So, maybe someone'll know and get you sorted. I can't figure it out.

Also, I notice it is an exam VM. Maybe you could ask the instructor?
 
So, I've been looking at this and trying to think. I counted the number of blank lines and moved up the list to account for that. That left me around this code block.

Code:
55 # If you don't want dnsmasq to read /etc/resolv.conf or any other
56 # file, getting its servers from this file instead (see below), then
57 # uncomment this.
58 #no-resolv

I think I'd try uncommenting line 58. That means removing the "#".

You'd then need to restart the service and see if it works. If it doesn't, just go back and put the comment back in, that is add the # back from where you'd removed it.

I think it's worth a shot, but I'm shooting from the hip here and not really sure.
 
First, how many interfaces do you have on your comptuer?

nmcli con show

Now what are the IPs on those interfaces?

ip addr

How are you getting those IP addresses? I dhcp server can't be getting it's IP address from a dhcp server.
You have to have a static IP on the interface that is going to server out dhcp addresses.
Ideally you want wo (or more) interfaces on your dhcp server. One for you admin lan (so you can ssh to it,
and get on the internet) The other to be your dhcp server gateway IP.

You will have to set the IP in this interface up yourself. Are you using a GUI (graphical) interfcae
or are you doing this from the command line?

There are a few address blocks that are not routed out to the internet by design. You will want
to use something in this range. A common subnet for this is...

192.168.1.X/24 - I will explain what those numbers mean in the next post.
After we get all this taken care of.. we can take a look at your dnsmasq.conf
I already see 3 questionable lines, but we'll get there. :)

Do you want this to do anything besides be a dhcp server? For example are you building
tftp server, pxeboot server, or something like that? If not, a dhcpd.conf file might be the way to go.
We will see what you have, and see what makes sense.
 
So, I've been looking at this and trying to think. I counted the number of blank lines and moved up the list to account for that. That left me around this code block.

Code:
55 # If you don't want dnsmasq to read /etc/resolv.conf or any other
56 # file, getting its servers from this file instead (see below), then
57 # uncomment this.
58 #no-resolv

I think I'd try uncommenting line 58. That means removing the "#".

You'd then need to restart the service and see if it works. If it doesn't, just go back and put the comment back in, that is add the # back from where you'd removed it.

I think it's worth a shot, but I'm shooting from the hip here and not really sure.

Thanks KGII i appreciate the help im still fixing it though but im happy i can get help :)
 
First, how many interfaces do you have on your comptuer?

nmcli con show

Now what are the IPs on those interfaces?

ip addr

How are you getting those IP addresses? I dhcp server can't be getting it's IP address from a dhcp server.
You have to have a static IP on the interface that is going to server out dhcp addresses.
Ideally you want wo (or more) interfaces on your dhcp server. One for you admin lan (so you can ssh to it,
and get on the internet) The other to be your dhcp server gateway IP.

You will have to set the IP in this interface up yourself. Are you using a GUI (graphical) interfcae
or are you doing this from the command line?

There are a few address blocks that are not routed out to the internet by design. You will want
to use something in this range. A common subnet for this is...

192.168.1.X/24 - I will explain what those numbers mean in the next post.
After we get all this taken care of.. we can take a look at your dnsmasq.conf
I already see 3 questionable lines, but we'll get there. :)

Do you want this to do anything besides be a dhcp server? For example are you building
tftp server, pxeboot server, or something like that? If not, a dhcpd.conf file might be the way to go.
We will see what you have, and see what makes sense.


Hi dos2unix I appreciate the help


nmcli con show

Now what are the IPs on those interfaces?



NAME UUID TYPE DEVICE


netplan-ens33 14f59568-5076-387a-aef6-10adfcca2e26 ethernet ens33


Wired connection 1 f3c0731e-17a7-398e-818d-517cf0c16f86 ethernet --



You will have to set the IP in this interface up yourself. Are you using a GUI (graphical) interfcae
or are you doing this from the command line?


I am using command line

Do you want this to do anything besides be a dhcp server? For example are you building
tftp server, pxeboot server, or something like that?


I would like to have a linux terminal server

About the Ip address im not sure if this is correct but i run the ip link
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:6b:48:3c brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
altname enp2s1
 
So NetworkManager shows you have two connections, although I don't see a network device for 'Wired connection 1".
ip link shows that ens33 is "up" (connected to an ethernet switch) but doesn't have an IP address.
I do not see any IP addresses at all on this computer. Is it on the internet? Are you wanting it to be on the internet?
Or just a local terminal server?

I would like to have a linux terminal server

All you need for that is ssh. Easy enough. Lets start with the network side first.
We will use ens33 for your dhcp server interface. Unless you have a reason not to.

nmcli con del netplan-ens33
warning: that will erase all network configuration for this interface.

nmcli con add con-name ens33 ifname ens33 type ethernet autoconnect yes ipv4.method manual ip4 192.168.1.1/24
this will rebuild your interface connection. The IP address of this interface will be 192.168.1.1
The /24 at the end of the address means 24 bits out of 32 to block network traffic. That might not mean anything to you yet,
but the main thing is... it allows you to talk to 253 other computers on the same subnet.

You can check to see if this interface is up with the ip link or ip addr command.
 
Last edited:
For your terminal server. Will every person have their own login account, or will everyone just use the same username and same password? For now I will assume everyone is using the same account.

What is the output of .. systemctl status -l sshd

We will need to check to see if your firewall is allowing ssh. But I need to know which distro you are using to do that.
 
Find this section in your dnsmasq.conf file.

#listen-address=

Change it to,...

listen-address=192.168.1.1
(be sure to remove the # at the beginning of the line).
This is the interface we set your static IP address on earlier.

Find this section in your dnsmasq.conf file.

# This is an example of a DHCP range where the netmask is given. This
# is needed for networks we reach the dnsmasq DHCP server via a relay
# agent. If you don't know what a DHCP relay agent is, you probably
# don't need to worry about this.
#dhcp-range=192.168.0.50,192.168.0.150,255.255.255.0,12h

Change the bottom line to...

dhcp-range=192.168.1.2,192.168.1.252,255.255.255.0,12h
(Be sure to remove the # at the beginning of the line)
This says your dhcp server will give addresses to anyone on this subnet,
The addresses start with 192.168.1.2 and go all the way up to 192.168.1.252.
That gives you the ability to have 250 terminal clients on this subnet. ( 252 - 2 = 250 )
The 255.255.255.0 is what is called a subnet mask. Thats a little more complicated to explain.
But for now 255.255.255.0 means the same thing as the /24 when you created your interface above.
The 12h at the end, means give any clients the address they receive for a length of 12 hours.
Don't worry about this length too much, because at the end of the 12 hours, it just renews the "lease"
and gives them the same IP address again. You don't want to set this too long, or it will keep holding
on to IP addresses, even if no client computers are connected.



 
Yes,:) I am actually in "VMWARE" using Jammy ubuntu 22.4.3 version "the jellyfish"
First, I tried to follow the Step by step installation of the Linux terminal Server
from ltsp.org
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Then I executed the "sudo ltsp dnsmasq"

genemae@Linux-Exam-VM:~$ sudo ltsp dnsmasq
RTNETLINK answers: Network is unreachable
LTSP command failed: ip -o route get 192.168.67.1
Could not parse output of: ip -o route get 192.168.67.1
RTNETLINK answers: Network is unreachable
LTSP command failed: ip -o route get 192.168.67.2
Could not parse output of: ip -o route get 192.168.67.2
Installed /usr/share/ltsp/server/dnsmasq/ltsp-dnsmasq.conf in /etc/dnsmasq.d/ltsp-dnsmasq.conf
Job for dnsmasq.service failed because the control process exited with error code.
See "systemctl status dnsmasq.service" and "journalctl -xeu dnsmasq.service" for details.
LTSP command failed: systemctl restart dnsmasq
Aborting ltsp
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Then I made another Virtual Machine called LTSPCLient
that runs on Vmnet 8 and tries to connect it
That's why maybe it's confusing sorry about that

And also in the device "ens33" that's the thing, I don't know what IP address I will use, can I make up my own IP address

Sorry, I am really new pretty dumb about Ip addresses and confused :)
 
Sorry, I am really new pretty dumb about Ip addresses and confused

You'll figure it out. With the right information, you're in good hands with @dos2unix. Just follow directions and ask good questions.

If you want, there's a link in my signature (the text below this post), and it goes to an article about how to ask a good support question. Asking a good support question isn't easy, it's something you'll learn in time.
 
You'll figure it out. With the right information, you're in good hands with @dos2unix. Just follow directions and ask good questions.

If you want, there's a link in my signature (the text below this post), and it goes to an article about how to ask a good support question. Asking a good support question isn't easy, it's something you'll learn in time.
Than you KGII, I will definitley study on that, as i was struggling to formulate how to ask the right question thank you so much i feel like i can breathe now
 
David, might be appropriate to move this to Networking?

Cheers

Chris Turner
wizardfromoz
 
Find this section in your dnsmasq.conf file.

#listen-address=

Change it to,...

listen-address=192.168.1.1
(be sure to remove the # at the beginning of the line).
This is the interface we set your static IP address on earlier.

Find this section in your dnsmasq.conf file.

# This is an example of a DHCP range where the netmask is given. This
# is needed for networks we reach the dnsmasq DHCP server via a relay
# agent. If you don't know what a DHCP relay agent is, you probably
# don't need to worry about this.
#dhcp-range=192.168.0.50,192.168.0.150,255.255.255.0,12h

Change the bottom line to...

dhcp-range=192.168.1.2,192.168.1.252,255.255.255.0,12h
(Be sure to remove the # at the beginning of the line)
This says your dhcp server will give addresses to anyone on this subnet,
The addresses start with 192.168.1.2 and go all the way up to 192.168.1.252.
That gives you the ability to have 250 terminal clients on this subnet. ( 252 - 2 = 250 )
The 255.255.255.0 is what is called a subnet mask. Thats a little more complicated to explain.
But for now 255.255.255.0 means the same thing as the /24 when you created your interface above.
The 12h at the end, means give any clients the address they receive for a length of 12 hours.
Don't worry about this length too much, because at the end of the 12 hours, it just renews the "lease"
and gives them the same IP address again. You don't want to set this too long, or it will keep holding
on to IP addresses, even if no client computers are connected.



Hi I just did your instructions it seems to work now I learn something new I would copy this instruction for future endeavors Thank you guys your awesome :cool:
 


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