Use any Linux distro you like.
They're all made by programmers, for programmers - all of the programming tools you'll ever need are available in the repos of all disros.
When it comes to compiling and executing code - there are a number of ways to do it.
You can either do it in the terminal using compilers like gcc/g++/clang/clang++, (or javac for java) and use make-files, or a build system like apache-ant, CMake, ninja etc. for building your programs.
And use debuggers like gdb in the terminal for testing/debugging.
Or you can download and install an IDE like Code::Blocks, VSCode, QTCreator, KDevelop for C/C++
Or Eclipse for Java, or Android Studio for Java programming for Android devices.
There are other IDE's available for other languages. It's also worth noting that some IDE's can be used for multiple languages.
An IDE is basically a text editor with a bunch of additional features that allows you to quickly set up a project, it integrates with your compiler/linker (gcc/g++/clang/clang++) and your debugger (gdb) and has other useful functionality. This integration allows you to be able to build, run and debug your programs from inside the IDE. As a beginner - you'll almost certainly want to install an IDE for whatever language you want to learn.
Once you have a better idea of what you're doing in an IDE, you might then decide to try using the compiler directly from the command line and start using make-files, or one of the many build-systems to build from the terminal.
It is definitely worth learning a bit about compiling and debugging your programs using the compiler/linker and debugger in the terminal - if nothing else, it will make you appreciate all of the neat things that an IDE automatically/automagically takes care of for you in the background!