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ZIP(1L)                                                                                                       ZIP(1L)



NAME
       zip - package and compress (archive) files

SYNOPSIS
       zip  [[email protected]$]  [--longoption  ...]   [-b  path] [-n suffixes] [-t date] [-tt date]
       [zipfile [file ...]]  [-xi list]

       zipcloak (see separate man page)

       zipnote (see separate man page)

       zipsplit (see separate man page)

       Note:  Command line processing in zip has been changed to support long options  and  handle  all  options  and
       arguments more consistently.  Some old command lines that depend on command line inconsistencies may no longer
       work.

DESCRIPTION
       zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS, OS/2, Windows  9x/NT/XP,  Minix,  Atari,
       Macintosh,  Amiga,  and  Acorn RISC OS.  It is analogous to a combination of the Unix commands tar(1) and com‐
       press(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz's ZIP for MSDOS systems).

       A companion program (unzip(1L)) unpacks zip archives.  The zip and unzip(1L) programs can work  with  archives
       produced  by  PKZIP  (supporting  most PKZIP features up to PKZIP version 4.6), and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work
       with archives produced by zip (with some exceptions, notably streamed archives, but recent changes in the  zip
       file  standard  may  facilitate better compatibility).  zip version 3.0 is compatible with PKZIP 2.04 and also
       supports the Zip64 extensions of PKZIP 4.5 which allow archives as well as files to exceed the previous  2  GB
       limit (4 GB in some cases).  zip also now supports bzip2 compression if the bzip2 library is included when zip
       is compiled.  Note that PKUNZIP 1.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2.04  or  zip 3.0.  You  must  use
       PKUNZIP 2.04g or unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.

       See the EXAMPLES section at the bottom of this page for examples of some typical uses of zip.

       Large Archives and Zip64.   zip  automatically uses the Zip64 extensions when files larger than 4 GB are added
       to an archive, an archive containing Zip64 entries is updated (if the resulting archive  still  needs  Zip64),
       the  size of the archive will exceed 4 GB, or when the number of entries in the archive will exceed about 64K.
       Zip64 is also used for archives streamed from standard input as the size of such archives  are  not  known  in
       advance,  but the option -fz- can be used to force zip to create PKZIP 2 compatible archives (as long as Zip64
       extensions are not needed).  You must use a PKZIP 4.5 compatible unzip, such as unzip 6.0 or later, to extract
       files using the Zip64 extensions.

       In addition, streamed archives, entries encrypted with standard encryption, or split archives created with the
       pause option may not be compatible with PKZIP as data descriptors are used and PKZIP at the time of this writ‐
       ing  does  not  support  data descriptors (but recent changes in the PKWare published zip standard now include
       some support for the data descriptor format zip uses).


       Mac OS X.  Though previous Mac versions had their own zip port, zip supports Mac OS X as part of the Unix port
       and  most Unix features apply.  References to "MacOS" below generally refer to MacOS versions older than OS X.
       Support for some Mac OS features in the Unix Mac OS X port, such as resource forks, is expected  in  the  next
       zip release.


       For a brief help on zip and unzip, run each without specifying any parameters on the command line.



       Command format.  The basic command format is

              zip options archive inpath inpath ...

       where  archive  is  a  new or existing zip archive and inpath is a directory or file path optionally including
       wildcards.  When given the name of an existing zip archive, zip will replace identically named entries in  the
       zip archive (matching the relative names as stored in the archive) or add entries for new names.  For example,
       if foo.zip exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and
       foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo.zip foo

       or more concisely

              zip -r foo foo

       will  replace  foo/file1  in  foo.zip  and  add foo/file3 to foo.zip.  After this, foo.zip contains foo/file1,
       foo/file2, and foo/file3, with foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       So if before the zip command is executed foo.zip has:

               foo/file1 foo/file2

       and directory foo has:

               file1 file3

       then foo.zip will have:

               foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3

       where foo/file1 is replaced and foo/file3 is new.

       [email protected] file lists.  If a file list is specified as [email protected] [Not on MacOS], zip takes the list of input files from stan‐
       dard input instead of from the command line.  For example,

              zip [email protected] foo

       will store the files listed one per line on stdin in foo.zip.

       Under Unix, this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find (1) command.  For example,
       to archive all the C source files in the current directory and its subdirectories:

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source [email protected]

       (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it).

       Streaming input and output.  zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name, in which  case  it
       will write the zip file to standard output, allowing the output to be piped to another program. For example:

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would  write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the purpose of backing up the

       When  no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal, zip acts as a filter, compressing standard input
       to standard output.  For example,

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which is provided  in  the  unzip
       package,  or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package (but some gunzip may not support this if zip used
       the Zip64 extensions). For example:

              dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.

       If Zip64 support for large files and archives is enabled and zip is used as a filter, zip creates a Zip64  ar‐
       chive that requires a PKZIP 4.5 or later compatible unzip to read it.  This is to avoid amgibuities in the zip
       file structure as defined in the current zip standard (PKWARE AppNote) where the decision to use  Zip64  needs
       to  be  made  before data is written for the entry, but for a stream the size of the data is not known at that
       point.  If the data is known to be smaller than 4 GB, the option -fz- can be used to prevent use of Zip64, but
       zip  will  exit with an error if Zip64 was in fact needed.  zip 3 and unzip 6 and later can read archives with
       Zip64 entries.  Also, zip removes the Zip64 extensions if not needed when archive entries are copied (see  the
       -U (--copy) option).

       When  directing  the  output to another file, note that all options should be before the redirection including
       -x.  For example:

              zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile

       Zip files.  When changing an existing zip archive, zip will write a temporary file with the new contents,  and
       only replace the old one when the process of creating the new version has been completed without error.

       If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension, the extension .zip is added. If the name already
       contains an extension other than .zip, the existing extension is kept unchanged.  However, split archives (ar‐
       chives split over multiple files) require the .zip extension on the last split.

       Scanning and reading files.   When  zip starts, it scans for files to process (if needed).  If this scan takes
       longer than about 5 seconds, zip will display a "Scanning files" message and start  displaying  progress  dots
       every  2  seconds or every so many entries processed, whichever takes longer.  If there is more than 2 seconds
       between dots it could indicate that finding each file is taking time and could mean a slow network  connection
       for  example.  (Actually the initial file scan is a two-step process where the directory scan is followed by a
       sort and these two steps are separated with a space in the dots.  If updating an  existing  archive,  a  space
       also  appears  between  the  existing  file scan and the new file scan.)  The scanning files dots are not con‐
       trolled by the -ds dot size option, but the dots are turned off by the -q quiet option.  The  -sf  show  files
       option can be used to scan for files and get the list of files scanned without actually processing them.

       If  zip  is  not able to read a file, it issues a warning but continues.  See the -MM option below for more on
       how zip handles patterns that are not matched and files that are not readable.  If some files were skipped,  a
       warning is issued at the end of the zip operation noting how many files were read and how many skipped.

       Command modes.   zip  now  supports  two distinct types of command modes, external and internal.  The external

              Update  existing  entries of an archive if newer on the file system.  Does not add new files to the ar‐
              chive.

       delete (-d)
              Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

       copy (-U)
              Select entries in an existing archive and copy them to a new archive.  This  new  mode  is  similar  to
              update but command line patterns select entries in the existing archive rather than files from the file
              system and it uses the --out option to write the resulting archive to a new file rather than update the
              existing archive, leaving the original archive unchanged.

       The  new File Sync option (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it is similar to update.  This mode syn‐
       chronizes the archive with the files on the OS, only replacing files in the archive if the file time  or  size
       of  the OS file is different, adding new files, and deleting entries from the archive where there is no match‐
       ing file.  As this mode can delete entries from the archive, consider making a backup copy of the archive.

       Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

       See each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES section below for examples.

       Split archives.  zip version 3.0 and later can create split archives.  A split archive is a standard  zip  ar‐
       chive  split  over multiple files.  (Note that split archives are not just archives split in to pieces, as the
       offsets of entries are now based on the start of each split.  Concatenating the pieces together  will  invali‐
       date these offsets, but unzip can usually deal with it.  zip will usually refuse to process such a spliced ar‐
       chive unless the -FF fix option is used to fix the offsets.)

       One use of split archives is storing a large archive on multiple removable media.  For a split archive with 20
       split  files  the  files  are typically named (replace ARCHIVE with the name of your archive) ARCHIVE.z01, AR‐
       CHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19, ARCHIVE.zip.  Note that the last file is the .zip file.  In contrast, spanned ar‐
       chives  are  the original multi-disk archive generally requiring floppy disks and using volume labels to store
       disk numbers.  zip supports split archives but not spanned archives, though a procedure exists for  converting
       split  archives of the right size to spanned archives.  The reverse is also true, where each file of a spanned
       archive can be copied in order to files with the above names to create a split archive.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is given as a number followed optionally by
       one  of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB) (the default is m).  The -sp option can be used to pause zip between
       splits to allow changing removable media, for example, but read the descriptions and warnings for both -s  and
       -sp below.

       Though  zip  does  not update split archives, zip provides the new option -O (--output-file or --out) to allow
       split archives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip

       reads archive inarchive.zip, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and writes the  resulting  archive
       to  outarchive.zip.   If inarchive.zip is split then outarchive.zip defaults to the same split size.  Be aware
       that if outarchive.zip and any split files that are created with it already exist, these are always  overwrit‐
       ten as needed without warning.  This may be changed in the future.

       Unicode.   Though  the  zip  standard  requires storing paths in an archive using a specific character set, in
       practice zips have stored paths in archives in whatever the local character set  is.   This  creates  problems
       when an archive is created or updated on a system using one character set and then extracted on another system
       using a different character set.  When compiled with Unicode support enabled on platforms  that  support  wide
       should show the correct paths if the needed fonts are loaded.

       Command line format.  This version of zip has updated command line processing and support for long options.

       Short options take the form

              -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]

       where  s is a one or two character short option.  A short option that takes a value is last in an argument and
       anything after it is taken as the value.  If the option can be negated and "-" immediately follows the option,
       the option is negated.  Short options can also be given as separate arguments

              -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...

       Short  options  in  general  take values either as part of the same argument or as the following argument.  An
       optional = is also supported.  So

              -ttmmddyyyy

       and

              -tt=mmddyyyy

       and

              -tt mmddyyyy

       all work.  The -x and -i options accept lists of values and use a slightly different format  described  below.
       See the -x and -i options.

       Long options take the form

              --longoption[-][=value][ value]

       where  the  option starts with --, has a multicharacter name, can include a trailing dash to negate the option
       (if the option supports it), and can have a value (option argument) specified by preceeding it with = (no spa‐
       ces).  Values can also follow the argument.  So

              --before-date=mmddyyyy

       and

              --before-date mmddyyyy

       both work.

       Long option names can be shortened to the shortest unique abbreviation.  See the option descriptions below for
       which support long options.  To avoid confusion, avoid abbreviating a negatable option with an  embedded  dash
       ("-")  at the dash if you plan to negate it (the parser would consider a trailing dash, such as for the option
       --some-option using --some- as the option, as part of the name rather than a  negating  dash).   This  may  be
       changed to force the last dash in --some- to be negating in the future.

OPTIONS
       -a
       updates need to be made.


       -AC
       --archive-clear
              [WIN32]   Once  archive  is created (and tested if -T is used, which is recommended), clear the archive
              bits of files processed.  WARNING: Once the bits are cleared they are cleared.  You may want to use the
              -sf  show  files  option  to  store  the  list of files processed in case the archive operation must be
              repeated.  Also consider using the -MM must match option.  Be sure to check out -DF as a possibly  bet‐
              ter way to do incremental backups.


       -AS
       --archive-set
              [WIN32]   Only  include  files  that  have the archive bit set.  Directories are not stored when -AS is
              used, though by default the paths of entries, including directories, are stored as  usual  and  can  be
              used by most unzips to recreate directories.

              The  archive  bit is set by the operating system when a file is modified and, if used with -AC, -AS can
              provide an incremental backup capability.  However, other applications can modify the archive  bit  and
              it  may  not  be  a  reliable  indicator  of which files have changed since the last archive operation.
              Alternative ways to create incremental backups are using -t to use file dates, though this won't  catch
              old files copied to directories being archived, and -DF to create a differential archive.


       -B
       --binary
              [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).


       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit  8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files


       -b path
       --temp-path path
              Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For example:

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will  put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp, copying over stuff.zip to the current direc‐
              tory when done. This option is useful when updating an existing archive and the file system  containing
              this old archive does not have enough space to hold both old and new archives at the same time.  It may
              also be useful when streaming in some cases to avoid the need for data descriptors.   Note  that  using
              this  option may require zip take additional time to copy the archive file when done to the destination
              file system.


       -c
       --entry-comments

              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS2 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C2-) downcases.


       -C5
       --preserve-case-5
              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C5-) downcases.


       -d
       --delete
              Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that start with foo/harry/, and all of  the  files
              that  end  with  .o  (in  any  path).  Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited with back‐
              slashes, so that zip can see the asterisks, enabling zip to match on the contents of  the  zip  archive
              instead  of  the contents of the current directory.  (The backslashes are not used on MSDOS-based plat‐
              forms.)  Can also use quotes to escape the asterisks as in

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

              Not escaping the asterisks on a system where the shell expands wildcards could result in the  asterisks
              being  converted  to a list of files in the current directory and that list used to delete entries from
              the archive.

              Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip archive.  This  requires  that  file
              names  be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.  (We considered making
              this case insensitive on systems where paths were case insensitive, but it is possible the archive came
              from  a  system where case does matter and the archive could include both Bar and bar as separate files
              in the archive.)  But see the new option -ic to ignore case in the archive.


       -db
       --display-bytes
              Display running byte counts showing the bytes zipped and the bytes to go.


       -dc
       --display-counts
              Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.


       -dd
       --display-dots
              Display dots while each entry is zipped (except on ports that have their own progress indicator).   See
              -ds  below  for  setting  dot  size.  The default is a dot every 10 MB of input file processed.  The -v
              option also displays dots (previously at a much higher rate than this but now -v also  defaults  to  10
              MB) and this rate is also controlled by -ds.


       -df
       --datafork
              [MacOS]  Include  only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.  Good for exporting files to foreign

       -ds size
       --dot-size size
              Set amount of input file processed for each dot displayed.  See -dd to enable displaying dots.  Setting
              this  option  implies  -dd.   Size is in the format nm where n is a number and m is a multiplier.  Cur‐
              rently m can be k (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB), so if n is 100 and m is k, size would be 100k  which
              is 100 KB.  The default is 10 MB.

              The  -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10 MB also.  This rate is also controlled by this
              option.  A size of 0 turns dots off.

              This option does not control the dots from the "Scanning files" message as zip scans for  input  files.
              The dot size for that is fixed at 2 seconds or a fixed number of entries, whichever is longer.


       -du
       --display-usize
              Display the uncompressed size of each entry.


       -dv
       --display-volume
              Display  the  volume  (disk)  number each entry is being read from, if reading an existing archive, and
              being written to.


       -D
       --no-dir-entries
              Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories.  Directory entries are created by default  so
              that  their attributes can be saved in the zip archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to
              change the default options. For example under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option, including -i and -x using a new option format detailed
              below, and can include several options.) The option -D is a shorthand for -x "*/" but the latter previ‐
              ously could not be set as default in the ZIPOPT environment variable as the  contents  of  ZIPOPT  gets
              inserted near the beginning of the command line and the file list had to end at the end of the line.

              This version of zip does allow -x and -i options in ZIPOPT if the form

               -x file file ... @

              is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the list.


       -DF
       --difference-archive
              Create  an archive that contains all new and changed files since the original archive was created.  For
              this to work, the input file list and current directory must be the same as  during  the  original  zip
              operation.

              For example, if the existing archive was created using

                     zip -r foofull .

              A possible approach to backing up a directory might be to create a normal archive of  the  contents  of
              the directory as a full backup, then use this option to create incremental backups.


       -e
       --encrypt
              Encrypt  the  contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on the terminal in response
              to a prompt (this will not be echoed; if standard error is not a tty, zip will  exit  with  an  error).
              The password prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors.


       -E
       --longnames
              [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename.


       -f
       --freshen
              Replace  (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than
              the version already in the zip archive; unlike the update option (-u) this will not add files that  are
              not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This  command  should be run from the same directory from which the original zip command was run, since
              paths stored in zip archives are always relative.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone  in  order
              for the -f, -u and -o options to work correctly.

              The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between the Unix-format
              file times (always in GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time) and  the  neces‐
              sity  to  compare  the  two.   A typical TZ value is ``MET-1MEST'' (Middle European time with automatic
              adjustment for ``summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

              The format is TTThhDDD, where TTT is the time zone such as MET, hh is the difference  between  GMT  and
              local  time  such as -1 above, and DDD is the time zone when daylight savings time is in effect.  Leave
              off the DDD if there is no daylight savings time.  For the US Eastern time zone EST5EDT.


       -F
       --fix
       -FF
       --fixfix
              Fix the zip archive. The -F option can be used if  some  portions  of  the  archive  are  missing,  but
              requires  a  reasonably  intact central directory.  The input archive is scanned as usual, but zip will
              ignore some problems.  The resulting archive should be valid, but any inconsistent entries will be left
              out.

              When  doubled as in -FF, the archive is scanned from the beginning and zip scans for special signatures
              to identify the limits between the archive members. The single -F is more reliable if  the  archive  is
              not too much damaged, so try this option first.

              If  the  archive is too damaged or the end has been truncated, you must use -FF.  This is a change from
              The format of the fix commands have changed.  For example, to fix the damaged archive foo.zip,

                     zip -F foo --out foofix

              tries to read the entries normally, copying good entries  to  the  new  archive  foofix.zip.   If  this
              doesn't  work,  as  when  the  archive is truncated, or if some entries you know are in the archive are
              missed, then try

                     zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

              and compare the resulting archive to the archive created by -F.  The -FF option may create an inconsis‐
              tent archive.  Depending on what is damaged, you can then use the -F option to fix that archive.

              A  split  archive  with missing split files can be fixed using -F if you have the last split of the ar‐
              chive (the .zip file).  If this file is missing, you must use -FF to fix the archive, which will prompt
              you for the splits you have.

              Currently the fix options can't recover entries that have a bad checksum or are otherwise damaged.


       -FI
       --fifo [Unix]   Normally zip skips reading any FIFOs (named pipes) encountered, as zip can hang if the FIFO is
              not being fed.  This option tells zip to read the contents of any FIFO it finds.


       -FS
       --filesync
              Synchronize the contents of an archive with the files on the OS.  Normally when an archive is  updated,
              new  files  are  added  and  changed files are updated but files that no longer exist on the OS are not
              deleted from the archive.  This option enables a new mode that checks entries in  the  archive  against
              the file system.  If the file time and file size of the entry matches that of the OS file, the entry is
              copied from the old archive instead of being read from the file system and compressed.  If the OS  file
              has  changed,  the entry is read and compressed as usual.  If the entry in the archive does not match a
              file on the OS, the entry is deleted.  Enabling this option should create archives that are the same as
              new archives, but since existing entries are copied instead of compressed, updating an existing archive
              with -FS can be much faster than creating a new archive.  Also consider using -u for  updating  an  ar‐
              chive.

              For this option to work, the archive should be updated from the same directory it was created in so the
              relative paths match.  If few files are being copied from the old archive, it may be faster to create a
              new archive instead.

              Note  that  the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in order
              for this option to work correctly.  A change in timezone since the original archive was  created  could
              result in no times matching and recompression of all files.

              This  option deletes files from the archive.  If you need to preserve the original archive, make a copy
              of the archive first or use the --out option to output the updated archive to a new file.  Even  though
              it  may  be  slower, creating a new archive with a new archive name is safer, avoids mismatches between
              archive and OS paths, and is preferred.


       -g
       --grow
       -h2
       --more-help
              Display  extended  help  including  more  on  command  line  format, pattern matching, and more obscure
              options.


       -i files
       --include files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which will include only the files that end in .c in the current directory and its subdirectories. (Note
              for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP  does  not  allow recursion in directories other than the current one.)  The backslash avoids the
              shell filename substitution, so that the name matching is performed by zip  at  all  directory  levels.
              [This  is  for Unix and other systems where \  escapes the next character.  For other systems where the
              shell does not process * do not use \ and the above is

                     zip -r foo . -i *.c

              Examples are for Unix unless otherwise specified.]  So to include dir, a directory directly  under  the
              current directory, use

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/\*

              or

                     zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"

              to match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports without wildcard expansion in the shell such as
              MSDOS and Windows

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/*

              is used.]  Note that currently the trailing / is needed for directories (as in

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/

              to include directory dir).

              The long option form of the first example is

                     zip -r foo . --include \*.c

              and does the same thing as the short option form.

              Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end of the  command  line,  this  version  actually
              allows  -i (or --include) anywhere.  The list of files terminates at the next argument starting with -,
              the end of the command line, or the list terminator @ (an argument that is just @).  So the  above  can
              be given as
              as additional examples.  The single value forms are not recommended because they can be confusing  and,
              in particular, the -ifile format can cause problems if the first letter of file combines with i to form
              a two-letter option starting with i.  Use -sc to see how your command line will be parsed.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . [email protected]

              which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories that match  the  pat‐
              terns in the file include.lst.

              Files to -i and -x are patterns matching internal archive paths.  See -R for more on patterns.


       -I
       --no-image
              [Acorn  RISC OS] Don't scan through Image files.  When used, zip will not consider Image files (eg. DOS
              partitions or Spark archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories  but  will  store  them  as  single
              files.

              For  example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive will result in a zipfile containing a
              directory (and its content) while using the 'I' option will result in a zipfile containing a Spark  ar‐
              chive.  Obviously  this  second  case  will  also be obtained (without the 'I' option) if SparkFS isn't
              loaded.


       -ic
       --ignore-case
              [VMS, WIN32] Ignore case when matching archive entries.  This option is only available on systems where
              the  case of files is ignored.  On systems with case-insensitive file systems, case is normally ignored
              when matching files on the file system but is not ignored for -f (freshen), -d (delete), -U (copy), and
              similar  modes when matching against archive entries (currently -f ignores case on VMS) because archive
              entries can be from systems where case does matter and names that are the  same  except  for  case  can
              exist  in an archive.  The -ic option makes all matching case insensitive.  This can result in multiple
              archive entries matching a command line pattern.


       -j
       --junk-paths
              Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not store directory names. By default,  zip
              will store the full path (relative to the current directory).


       -jj
       --absolute-path
              [MacOS]  record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including volume will be stored. By default the
              relative path will be stored.


       -J
       --junk-sfx
              Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

       -k

       -la
       --log-append
              Append to existing logfile.  Default is to overwrite.

       -lf logfilepath
       --logfile-path logfilepath
              Open a logfile at the given path.  By default any existing file at that location  is  overwritten,  but
              the -la option will result in an existing file being opened and the new log information appended to any
              existing information.  Only warnings and errors are written to the log unless the -li  option  is  also
              given, then all information messages are also written to the log.

       -li
       --log-info
              Include  information  messages,  such  as  file names being zipped, in the log.  The default is to only
              include the command line, any warnings and errors, and the final status.

       -ll
       --from-crlf
              Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option should not be used  on  binary  files.
              This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.  If the file is con‐
              verted and the file is later determined to be binary a warning is issued and the file is probably  cor‐
              rupted.   In  this release if -ll detects binary in the first buffer read from a file, zip now issues a
              warning and skips line end conversion on the file.  This check seems to catch all binary files  tested,
              but the original check remains and if a converted file is later determined to be binary that warning is
              still issued.  A new algorithm is now being used for binary detection that should allow line  end  con‐
              version of text files in UTF-8 and similar encodings.

       -L
       --license
              Display the zip license.

       -m
       --move
              Move  the  specified  files  into  the zip archive; actually, this deletes the target directories/files
              after making the specified zip archive. If a directory becomes empty after removal of  the  files,  the
              directory is also removed. No deletions are done until zip has created the archive without error.  This
              is useful for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is recommended  to  use  it  in
              combination with -T to test the archive before removing all input files.

       -MM
       --must-match
              All  input  patterns must match at least one file and all input files found must be readable.  Normally
              when an input pattern does not match a file the "name not matched" warning is issued and when an  input
              file  has  been found but later is missing or not readable a missing or not readable warning is issued.
              In either case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or unreadable new files  being  skipped
              and  files already in the archive remaining unchanged.  After the archive is created, if any files were
              not readable zip returns the OPEN error code (18 on most systems) instead of the normal success  return
              (0  on most systems).  With -MM set, zip exits as soon as an input pattern is not matched (whenever the
              "name not matched" warning would be issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In either case  zip
              exits with an OPEN error and no archive is created.

              This  option  is  useful  when a known list of files is to be zipped so any missing or unreadable files
              will result in an error.  It is less useful when used with wildcards, but zip will still exit  with  an
              will copy everything from foo into foo.zip, but will store any files that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif,
              or .snd without trying to compress them (image and sound files often have their  own  specialized  com‐
              pression   methods).    By   default,  zip  does  not  compress  files  with  extensions  in  the  list
              .Z:.zip:.zoo:.arc:.lzh:.arj.  Such files are stored directly in the output  archive.   The  environment
              variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n .gif:.zip"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The maximum compression option -9 also attempts compression on all files regardless of extension.

              On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format). By default, zip does
              not compress files with filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files and PackDir files).

       -nw
       --no-wild
              Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell processing of wildcards is still done by  the  shell
              unless  the  arguments are escaped).  Useful if a list of paths is being read and no wildcard substitu‐
              tion is desired.

       -N
       --notes
              [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments. They can be restored by using the  -N
              option  of  unzip.  If  -c is used also, you are prompted for comments only for those files that do not
              have filenotes.

       -o
       --latest-time
              Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last modified" time found among
              the  entries in the zip archive.  This can be used without any other operations, if desired.  For exam‐
              ple:

              zip -o foo

              will change the last modified time of foo.zip to the latest time of the entries in foo.zip.

       -O output-file
       --output-file output-file
              Process the archive changes as usual, but instead of updating the existing archive, output the new  ar‐
              chive  to  output-file.   Useful  for updating an archive without changing the existing archive and the
              input archive must be a different file than the output archive.

              This option can be used to create updated split archives.  It can also be used with -U to copy  entries
              from an existing archive to a new archive.  See the EXAMPLES section below.

              Another  use  is  converting zip files from one split size to another.  For instance, to convert an ar‐
              chive with 700 MB CD splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:

                     zip -s 2g cd-split.zip --out dvd-split.zip

              which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:
              Include  relative file paths as part of the names of files stored in the archive.  This is the default.
              The -j option junks the paths and just stores the names of the files.

       -P password
       --password password
              Use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS INSECURE!  Many multi-user operating systems
              provide  ways  for any user to see the current command line of any other user; even on stand-alone sys‐
              tems there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password  as  part
              of a command line in an automated script is even worse.  Whenever possible, use the non-echoing, inter‐
              active prompt to enter passwords.  (And where security is truly important, use strong  encryption  such
              as  Pretty  Good  Privacy instead of the relatively weak standard encryption provided by zipfile utili‐
              ties.)

       -q
       --quiet
              Quiet mode; eliminate informational messages and comment  prompts.   (Useful,  for  example,  in  shell
              scripts and background tasks).

       -Qn
       --Q-flag n
              [QDOS] store information about the file in the file header with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
              bit  1: Add headers for all files
              bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

       -r
       --recurse-paths
              Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo.zip foo

              or more concisely

                     zip -r foo foo

              In  this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named foo.zip, including
              files with names starting with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell's file-name substitution
              mechanism.   If you wish to include only a specific subset of the files in directory foo and its subdi‐
              rectories, use the -i option to specify the pattern of files to be included.  You  should  not  use  -r
              with  the name ".*", since that matches ".."  which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (proba‐
              bly not what was intended).

              Multiple source directories are allowed as in

                     zip -r foo foo1 foo2

              which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down each directory.

              Note that while wildcards to -r are typically resolved while recursing down  directories  in  the  file
              system, any -R, -x, and -i wildcards are applied to internal archive pathnames once the directories are
              scanned.  To have wildcards apply to files in subdirectories when recursing on Unix and similar systems
              where the shell does wildcard substitution, either escape all wildcards or put all arguments with wild‐
              cards in quotes.  This lets zip see the wildcards and match files in subdirectories using  them  as  it
              recurses.

              Patterns  are  relative  file  paths as they appear in the archive, or will after zipping, and can have
              optional wildcards in them.  For example, given the current directory is foo and under it are  directo‐
              ries foo1 and foo2 and in foo1 is the file bar.c,

                     zip -R foo/*

              will zip up foo, foo/foo1, foo/foo1/bar.c, and foo/foo2.

                     zip -R */bar.c

              will zip up foo/foo1/bar.c.  See the note for -r on escaping wildcards.


       -RE
       --regex
              [WIN32]   Before zip 3.0, regular expression list matching was enabled by default on Windows platforms.
              Because of confusion resulting from the need to escape "[" and "]" in names, it is now off  by  default
              for Windows so "[" and "]" are just normal characters in names.  This option enables [] matching again.


       -s splitsize
       --split-size splitsize
              Enable  creating  a  split archive and set the split size.  A split archive is an archive that could be
              split over many files.  As the archive is created, if the size of the  archive  reaches  the  specified
              split size, that split is closed and the next split opened.  In general all splits but the last will be
              the split size and the last will be whatever is left.  If the entire archive is smaller than the  split
              size a single-file archive is created.

              Split  archives  are stored in numbered files.  For example, if the output archive is named archive and
              three splits are required, the resulting archive will be in the three files  archive.z01,  archive.z02,
              and  archive.zip.   Do  not  change the numbering of these files or the archive will not be readable as
              these are used to determine the order the splits are read.

              Split size is a number optionally followed by a multiplier.  Currently the number must be  an  integer.
              The  multiplier  can currently be one of k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), g (gigabytes), or t (terabytes).
              As 64k is the minimum split size, numbers without multipliers default to megabytes.   For  example,  to
              create  a  split  archive  called foo with the contents of the bar directory with splits of 670 MB that
              might be useful for burning on CDs, the command:

                     zip -s 670m -r foo bar

              could be used.

              Currently the old splits of a split archive are not excluded from  a  new  archive,  but  they  can  be
              specifically  excluded.   If  possible, keep the input and output archives out of the path being zipped
              when creating split archives.

              Using -s without -sp as above creates all the splits where foo is being written, in this case the  cur‐
              rent  directory.   This  split  mode  updates the splits as the archive is being created, requiring all
              splits to remain writable, but creates split archives that are readable  by  any  unzip  that  supports
              split archives.  See -sp below for enabling split pause mode which allows splits to be written directly
              to removable media.


       -sb
       --split-bell
              If splitting and using split pause mode, ring the bell when zip pauses for each split destination.

       -sc
       --show-command
              Show the command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The new command parser  permutes  the  argu‐
              ments,  putting  all options and any values associated with them before any non-option arguments.  This
              allows an option to appear anywhere in the command line as long as any values that go with  the  option
              go  with  it.   This  option displays the command line as zip sees it, including any arguments from the
              environment such as from the ZIPOPT variable.  Where allowed, options later in  the  command  line  can
              override options earlier in the command line.

       -sf
       --show-files
              Show  the  files  that  would be operated on, then exit.  For instance, if creating a new archive, this
              will list the files that would be added.  If the option is negated, -sf-, output only to  an  open  log
              file.  Screen display is not recommended for large lists.

       -so
       --show-options
              Show  all  available options supported by zip as compiled on the current system.  As this command reads
              the option table, it should include all options.  Each line includes the short option (if defined), the
              long  option  (if  defined),  the  format  of any value that goes with the option, if the option can be
              negated, and a small description.  The value format can be no value, required  value,  optional  value,
              single  character  value, number value, or a list of values.  The output of this option is not intended
              to show how to use any option but only show what options are available.

       -sp
       --split-pause
              If splitting is enabled with -s, enable split pause mode.  This creates split archives as -s does,  but
              stream  writing is used so each split can be closed as soon as it is written and zip will pause between
              each split to allow changing split destination or media.

              Though this split mode allows writing splits directly to removable media, it uses stream archive format
              that  may  not be readable by some unzips.  Before relying on splits created with -sp, test a split ar‐
              chive with the unzip you will be using.

              To convert a stream split archive (created with -sp) to a standard archive see the --out option.

       -su
       --show-unicode
              As -sf, but also show Unicode version of the path if exists.

       -sU
       --show-just-unicode
              As -sf, but only show Unicode version of the path if exists, otherwise show the standard version of the
              path.

       -sv
       --split-verbose
              Enable various verbose messages while splitting, showing how the splitting is being done.

       -S

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will  add  all  the  files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on or after 7 December
              1991, to the zip archive infamy.zip.

       -tt mmddyyyy
       --before-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date, where mm is the month (00-12),  dd  is
              the  day  of  the  month  (01-31),  and  yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also
              accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before 30  November  1995,
              to the zip archive infamy.zip.

       -T
       --test
              Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails, the old zip file is unchanged and (with the
              -m option) no input files are removed.

       -TT cmd
       --unzip-command cmd
              Use command cmd instead of 'unzip -tqq' to test an archive when the -T option is used.  On Unix, to use
              a copy of unzip in the current directory instead of the standard system unzip, could use:

               zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

              In  cmd,  {}  is  replaced  by  the name of the temporary archive, otherwise the name of the archive is
              appended to the end of the command.  The return code is checked for success (0 on Unix).

       -u
       --update
              Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more  recently  than
              the version already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will  add  any  new files in the current directory, and update any files which have been modified since
              the zip archive stuff.zip was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to pack stuff.zip  into
              itself when you do this).

              Note that the -u option with no input file arguments acts like the -f (freshen) option.

       -U
       --copy-entries
              Copy entries from one archive to another.  Requires the --out option to specify a different output file
              than the input archive.  Copy mode is the reverse of -d delete.  When delete is being used with  --out,
              the  selected entries are deleted from the archive and all other entries are copied to the new archive,
              while copy mode selects the files to include in the new archive.  Unlike -u update, input  patterns  on
              the command line are matched against archive entries only and not the file system files.  For instance,


       -UN v
       --unicode v
              Determine what zip should do with Unicode file names.  zip 3.0, in addition to the standard file  path,
              now  includes the UTF-8 translation of the path if the entry path is not entirely 7-bit ASCII.  When an
              entry is missing the Unicode path, zip reverts back to the standard file path.  The problem with  using
              the  standard  path is this path is in the local character set of the zip that created the entry, which
              may contain characters that are not valid in the character set being used by the unzip.   When  zip  is
              reading  an archive, if an entry also has a Unicode path, zip now defaults to using the Unicode path to
              recreate the standard path using the current local character set.

              This option can be used to determine what zip should do with this path if there is a  mismatch  between
              the stored standard path and the stored UTF-8 path (which can happen if the standard path was updated).
              In all cases, if there is a mismatch it is assumed that the standard path is more current and zip  uses
              that.  Values for v are

                     q - quit if paths do not match

                     w - warn, continue with standard path

                     i - ignore, continue with standard path

                     n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

              The default is to warn and continue.

              Characters  that are not valid in the current character set are escaped as #Uxxxx and #Lxxxxxx, where x
              is an ASCII character for a hex digit.  The first is used if a 16-bit character number is sufficient to
              represent  the  Unicode  character and the second if the character needs more than 16 bits to represent
              it's Unicode character code.  Setting -UN to

                     e - escape

              as in

                     zip archive -sU -UN=e

              forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit ASCII.

              Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard path field on systems where  UTF-8  is  the  current
              character set and stores the UTF-8 in the new extra fields otherwise.  The option

                     u - UTF-8

              as in

                     zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

              forces zip to store UTF-8 as native in the archive.  Note that storing UTF-8 directly is the default on
              Unix systems that support it.  This option could be useful on Windows systems where the escaped path is
              too  large  to  be  a  valid path and the UTF-8 version of the path is smaller, but native UTF-8 is not
              backward compatible on Windows systems.


              mation about the target environment (compiler type and version, OS version, compilation  date  and  the
              enabled optional features used to create the zip executable).

       -V
       --VMS-portable
              [VMS]  Save  VMS  file attributes.  (Files are  truncated at EOF.)   When a -V archive is unpacked on a
              non-VMS system,  some file types (notably Stream_LF text files  and  pure binary files  like fixed-512)
              should be extracted intact.  Indexed files and file types with embedded record sizes (notably variable-
              length record types) will probably be seen as corrupt elsewhere.

       -VV
       --VMS-specific
              [VMS] Save VMS file attributes, and  all allocated blocks in a file,  including  any  data beyond  EOF.
              Useful  for  moving ill-formed files  among  VMS systems.   When a -VV archive is unpacked on a non-VMS
              system, almost all files will appear corrupt.

       -w
       --VMS-versions
              [VMS] Append the version number of the files  to  the  name,  including  multiple  versions  of  files.
              Default is to use only the most recent version of a specified file.

       -ww
       --VMS-dot-versions
              [VMS]  Append  the version number of the files to the name, including multiple versions of files, using
              the .nnn format.  Default is to use only the most recent version of a specified file.

       -ws
       --wild-stop-dirs
              Wildcards match only at a directory level.  Normally zip handles paths as strings and given the paths

                     /foo/bar/dir/file1.c

                     /foo/bar/file2.c

              an input pattern such as

                     /foo/bar/*

              normally would match both paths, the * matching dir/file1.c and file2.c.  Note that in the first case a
              directory  boundary (/) was crossed in the match.  With -ws no directory bounds will be included in the
              match, making wildcards local to a specific directory level.  So, with -ws  enabled,  only  the  second
              path would be matched.

              When using -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as * does normally.

       -x files
       --exclude files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which  will  include  the contents of foo in foo.zip while excluding all the files that end in .o.  The
              backslash avoids the shell filename substitution, so that the name matching is performed by zip at  all
              directory levels.
              and

                     zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

              Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

              If there is no space between -x and the pattern, just one value is assumed (no list):

                     zip -r foo foo -x\*.o

              See -i for more on include and exclude.

       -X
       --no-extra
              Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2, uid/gid and file times on  Unix).   The
              zip  format  uses extra fields to include additional information for each entry.  Some extra fields are
              specific to particular systems while others are applicable to all systems.   Normally  when  zip  reads
              entries  from  an  existing  archive, it reads the extra fields it knows, strips the rest, and adds the
              extra fields applicable to that system.  With -X, zip strips all old fields and only includes the  Uni‐
              code and Zip64 extra fields (currently these two extra fields cannot be disabled).

              Negating this option, -X-, includes all the default extra fields, but also copies over any unrecognized
              extra fields.

       -y
       --symlinks
              For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as such in the zip  archive,  instead  of  com‐
              pressing  and  storing the file referred to by the link.  This can avoid multiple copies of files being
              included in the archive as zip recurses the directory trees and accesses files directly and by links.

       -z
       --archive-comment
              Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The comment is ended by a line  containing
              just  a  period, or an end of file condition (^D on Unix, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The comment can
              be taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -Z cm
       --compression-method cm
              Set the default compression method.  Currently the main methods supported by zip are store and deflate.
              Compression method can be set to:

              store  - Setting the compression method to store forces zip to store entries with no compression.  This
              is generally faster than compressing entries, but results in no space savings.  This  is  the  same  as
              using -0 (compression level zero).

              deflate - This is the default method for zip.  If zip determines that storing is better than deflation,
              the entry will be stored instead.

              bzip2 - If bzip2 support is compiled in, this compression method also  becomes  available.   Only  some
              modern  unzips  currently  support  the  bzip2  compression method, so test the unzip you will be using
              Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #, where -0 indicates no compression (store
              all  files), -1 indicates the fastest compression speed (less compression) and -9 indicates the slowest
              compression speed (optimal compression, ignores the suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

              Though still being worked, the intention is this setting will control compression speed  for  all  com‐
              pression methods.  Currently only deflation is controlled.

       -!
       --use-privileges
              [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security.

       [email protected]
       --names-stdin
              Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one filename per line.

       -$
       --volume-label
              [MSDOS,  OS/2,  WIN32]  Include the volume label for the drive holding the first file to be compressed.
              If you want to include only the volume label or to force a specific drive, use the drive name as  first
              file name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar

EXAMPLES
       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates  the archive stuff.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all the files in the current directory in
       it, in compressed form (the .zip suffix is added  automatically,  unless  the  archive  name  contains  a  dot
       already; this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes).

       Because  of the way the shell on Unix does filename substitution, files starting with "." are not included; to
       include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory.

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates the archive foo.zip, containing all the files and directories in the directory foo that  is  contained
       within the current directory.

       You  may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo, without recording the directory name, foo.
       You can use the -j option to leave off the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to hold both the  original  directory  and  the
       corresponding  compressed zip archive.  In this case, you can create the archive in steps using the -m option.
       If foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry, you can:
       one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB).  The command

              zip -s 2g -r split.zip foo

       creates a split archive of the directory foo with splits no bigger than 2 GB each.  If foo contained  5 GB  of
       contents  and the contents were stored in the split archive without compression (to make this example simple),
       this would create three splits, split.z01 at 2 GB, split.z02 at 2 GB, and split.zip at a little over 1 GB.

       The -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow changing removable  media,  for  example,  but
       read the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though  zip  does not update split archives, zip provides the new option -O (--output-file) to allow split ar‐
       chives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip

       reads archive inarchive.zip, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and writes the  resulting  archive
       to  outarchive.zip.   If inarchive.zip is split then outarchive.zip defaults to the same split size.  Be aware
       that outarchive.zip and any split files that are created with it are always overwritten without warning.  This
       may be changed in the future.





PATTERN MATCHING
       This  section  applies  only  to Unix.  Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation.  However, the
       special wildcard characters * and [] below apply to at least MSDOS also.

       The Unix shells (sh, csh, bash, and others) normally do filename substitution (also called "globbing") on com‐
       mand arguments.  Generally the special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match  any  character in the range indicated within the brackets (example: [a-f], [0-9]).  This form of
              wildcard matching allows a user to specify a list of characters between square brackets and if  any  of
              the characters match the expression matches.  For example:

                     zip archive "*.[hc]"

              would archive all files in the current directory that end in .h or .c.

              Ranges of characters are supported:

                     zip archive "[a-f]*"

              would add to the archive all files starting with "a" through "f".

              Negation  is also supported, where any character in that position not in the list matches.  Negation is
              supported by adding ! or ^ to the beginning of the list:

                     zip archive "*.[!o]"

       of the -x (exclude) or -i (include) options, on the list of files to be operated on, by using  backslashes  or
       quotes  to tell the shell not to do the name expansion.  In general, when zip encounters a name in the list of
       files to do, it first looks for the name in the file system.  If it finds it, it then adds it to the  list  of
       files  to do.  If it does not find it, it looks for the name in the zip archive being modified (if it exists),
       using the pattern matching characters described above, if present.  For each match, it will add that  name  to
       the  list  of  files to be processed, unless this name matches one given with the -x option, or does not match
       any name given with the -i option.

       The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match names that end in ".o", no matter what
       the  path  prefix is.  Note that the backslash must precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or the entire
       argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In general, use backslashes or double quotes for paths that have wildcards to make zip do the pattern matching
       for  file paths, and always for paths and strings that have spaces or wildcards for -i, -x, -R, -d, and -U and
       anywhere zip needs to process the wildcards.

ENVIRONMENT
       The following environment variables are read and used by zip as described.

       ZIPOPT
              contains default options that will be used when running zip.  The contents of this environment variable
              will get added to the command line just after the zip command.

       ZIP
              [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

       Zip$Options
              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

       Zip$Exts
              [RISC  OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause native filenames with one of the speci‐
              fied extensions to be added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.

       ZIP_OPTS
              [VMS] see ZIPOPT

SEE ALSO
       compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)

DIAGNOSTICS
       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following val‐
       ues, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              2      unexpected end of zip file.

              3      a  generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Processing may have completed successfully
                     anyway; some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-arounds.

              4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization.

              5      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.  Processing probably failed immediately.

              11     read or seek error

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file

              14     error writing to a file

              15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open a specified file to read

              19     zip was compiled with options not supported on this system

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-looking things, so zip instead maps  them
       into VMS-style status codes.  In general, zip sets VMS Facility = 1955 (0x07A3), Code = 2* Unix_status, and an
       appropriate Severity (as specified in ziperr.h).  More details are included in the VMS-specific documentation.
       See [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.

BUGS
       zip  3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip files which can be extracted by PKUN‐
       ZIP 1.10.

       zip files produced by zip 3.0 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or PKZIP 1.10, if they contain encrypted  members
       or  if  they  have been produced in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP would
       create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can list the contents of the zip file but cannot
       extract  it  anyway  (because of the new compression algorithm).  If you do not use encryption and use regular
       disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.  Only stream-LF format zip files are expected
       to work with zip.  Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF program.  This version of zip handles some
       of the conversion internally.  When using Kermit to transfer zip files from VMS to MSDOS, type "set file  type
       block"  on  VMS.   When transfering from MSDOS to VMS, type "set file type fixed" on VMS.  In both cases, type
       "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under some older VMS versions, zip may hang for file specifications that use DECnet syntax foo::*.*.

       On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those including an exclamation mark or a hash sign.  This  is  a
       bug  in  OS/2  itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don't find such names.  Other programs such as GNU tar are
       also affected by this bug.

       Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the amount  returned  by
       the  16-bit  version  of  DosQueryPathInfo().  Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report different EA sizes when
       DIRing a file.  However, the structure layout returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different, it
       uses  extra  padding  bytes and link pointers (it's a linked list) to have all fields on 4-byte boundaries for
       portability to future RISC OS/2 versions. Therefore the value reported by zip  (which  uses  this  32-bit-mode
       size)  differs from that reported by DIR.  zip stores the 32-bit format for portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-
       compiled version running on OS/2 1.3, so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

AUTHORS
       Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Info-ZIP.

       OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE  LIABLE  FOR  ANY  DAMAGES
       RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

       Please send bug reports and comments using the web page at: www.info-zip.org.  For bug reports, please include
       the version of zip (see zip -h), the make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the machine  and  operating
       system in use, and as much additional information as possible.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       Thanks to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which inspired this project, and from which the shrink algo‐
       rithm was stolen; to Phil Katz for placing in the public domain the zip file format, compression  format,  and
       .ZIP  filename extension, and for accepting minor changes to the file format; to Steve Burg for clarifications
       on the deflate format; to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful ideas  for  the  com‐
       pression  algorithm; to Keith Petersen, Rich Wales, Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list
       and ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use; and most importantly, to the Info-ZIP group itself (listed in  the
       file  infozip.who)  without  whose  tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been
       possible.  Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator, David Kirschbaum, for getting us into
       this  mess  in  the first place.  The manual page was rewritten for Unix by R. P. C. Rodgers and updated by E.
       Gordon for zip 3.0.



Info-ZIP                                         16 June 2008 (v3.0)                                          ZIP(1L)