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LS(1)                                               User Commands                                               LS(1)

       ls - list directory contents

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       List  information  about the FILEs (the current directory by default).  Sort entries alphabetically if none of
       -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

              scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., '--block-size=M' prints sizes  in  units  of  1,048,576
              bytes; see SIZE format below

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with  -lt:  sort  by,  and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information); with -l:
              show ctime and sort by name; otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first

       -C     list entries by columns

              colorize the output; WHEN can be 'never', 'auto', or 'always' (the default); more info below

       -d, --directory
              list directories themselves, not their contents

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

              likewise, except do not append '*'

              across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

              follow each command line symbolic link

              that points to a directory

              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

              append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p),  file-type  (--file-type),
              classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k, --kibibytes
              default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when  showing  file  information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references
              rather than for the link itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of nongraphic characters

              show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is 'ls' and output is a terminal)

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

              sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)

              with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time: atime or access or use (-u)  ctime  or
              status (-c); also use specified time as sort key if --sort=time

              with  -l,  show  times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT; FORMAT is inter‐
              preted like in 'date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies to  non-recent  files
              and  FORMAT2  to  recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with 'posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the
              POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time, newest first

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access time and sort by name;  otherwise:  sort
              by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -1     list one file per line

       SELinux options:

              Display security context.   Enable -l. Lines will probably be too wide for most displays.

       -Z, --context
              Display  security  context so it fits on most displays.  Displays only mode, user, group, security con‐
              text and file name.

              Display only security context and file name.

       --help display this help and exit

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

       GNU   coreutils   online   help:   <>  Report  ls  translation  bugs  to

       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

       Copyright  ©  2013  Free  Software  Foundation,  Inc.   License  GPLv3+:  GNU   GPL   version   3   or   later
       This  is  free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent per‐
       mitted by law.

       The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and  ls  programs  are  properly
       installed at your site, the command

              info coreutils 'ls invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.22                                  November 2016                                               LS(1)