What Is Linux

Discussion in 'Beginner Tutorials' started by Rob, Jul 2, 2013.

  1. Rob

    Rob Administrator Staff Member

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    Beginners Level Course: What is Linux?

    Linux is an operating system that evolved from a kernel created by Linus Torvalds when he was a student at the University of Helsinki. Generally, it is obvious to most people what Linux is. However, both for political and practical reasons, it needs to be explained further. To say that Linux is an operating system means that it's meant to be used as an alternative to other operating systems, Windows, Mac OS, MS-DOS, Solaris and others. Linux is not a program like a word processor and is not a set of programs like an office suite. Linux is an interface between computer/server hardware, and the programs which run on it.

    A brief history of Linux
    When Linus Torvalds was studying at the University of Helsinki, he was using a version of the UNIX operating system called 'Minix'. Linus and other users sent requests for modifications and improvements to Minix's creator, Andrew Tanenbaum, but he felt that they weren't necessary. That's when Linus decided to create his own operating system that would take into account users' comments and suggestions for improvements.

    Free Software pre-Linux
    This philosophy of a****g for users' comments and suggestions and using them to improve computer programs was not new. Richard Stallman, who worked at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, had been advocating just such an approach to computer programming and use since the early 1970's. He was a pioneer in the concept of 'free software', always pointing out that 'free' means 'freedom', not zero cost. Finding it difficult to continue working under conditions that he felt went against his concept of 'free software' he left MIT in 1984 and founded GNU. The goal of GNU was to produce software that was free to use, distribute and modify. Linus Torvalds' goal 6 years later was basically the same: to produce an operating system that took into account user feedback.

    The kernel
    We should point out here that the focal point of any operating system is its 'kernel'. Without going into great detail, the kernel is what tells the big chip that controls your computer to do what you want the program that you're using to do. To use a metaphor, if you go to your favorite Italian restaurant and order 'Spaghetti alla Bolognese', this dish is like your operating system. There are a lot of things that go into making that dish like pasta, tomato sauce, meatballs and cheese. Well, the kernel is like the pasta. Without pasta, that dish doesn't exist. You might as well find some bread and make a sandwich. A plate of just pasta is fairly unappetizing.
    Without a kernel, an operating system doesn't exist. Without programs, a kernel is useless.

    1991, a fateful year
    In 1991, ideal conditions existed that would create Linux. In essence, Linus Torvalds had a kernel but no programs of his own, Richard Stallman and GNU had programs but no working kernel. Read the two men's own words about this:

    Linux is introduced
    Late in 1991, Linus Torvalds had his kernel and a few GNU programs wrapped around it so it would work well enough to show other people what he had done. And that's what he did. The first people to see Linux knew that Linus was on to something. At this point, though, he needed more people to help him. Here's what Linus had to say back in 1991.


    People all over the world decided to take him up on it. At first, only people with extensive computer programming knowledge would be able to do anything with that early public version of Linux. These people started to offer their help. The version numbers of Linux were getting higher and higher. People began writing programs specifically to be run under Linux. Developers began writing drivers for different video cards, sound cards and other gadgets inside and outside your computer could use Linux. Nevertheless, throughout most of first part of the 1990's Linux did not get out of the 'GURU' stage. GURU is a term that has evolved to mean anyone who has special expertise in a particular subject. That is, you had to have special expertise in how computers worked to be able to install Linux in those days.
    Linux, at first, was not for everybody

    Other popular software companies sold you a CD or a set of floppies and a brief instruction booklet and in probably less than a half an hour, you could install a fully working operating system on your PC. The only ability you needed was knowing how to read. Those companies had that intention when they actually sat down and developed their operating systems. Linus Torvalds didn't have that in mind when he developed Linux. It was just a hobby for him. Later on, companies like Red Hat made it their goal to bring Linux to the point where it could be installed just like any other operating system; by anyone who can follow a set of simple instructions, and they have succeeded. For some reason, though, Linux hasn't completely lost its 'Gurus only' image. This is largely because of the popular tech press' inability to explain in a meaningful way what Linux is. The truth is that few tech reporters have real life experience with Linux and it is reflected in their writing.


    Where Linux is Today
    Today, Linux is enjoying a favorable press for the most part. This comes from the fact that Linux has proven to be a tremendously stable and versatile operating system, particularly as a network server. When Linux is deployed as a web server or in corporate networks, its down-time is almost negligible. There have been cases when Linux servers have been running for more than a year without re-booting and then only taken down for a brief period for routine maintenance. Its cost effectiveness has sold it more than anything else. Linux can be installed on a home PC as well as a network server for a fraction of the cost of other companies' software packages. More reliability and less cost - it's ideal.

    If you're reading this, you're obviously here to learn how to use Linux. Any learning experience means opening up to new ideas and new ways of doing things. As mentioned before, Linux is in the UNIX family of operating systems. UNIX is primarily designed to be used by professionals. You will have to learn some UNIX concepts in this lesson, but that doesn't mean that Linux is a professionals-only operating system. In fact, most major versions of Linux are designed to be as user-friendly and as easy to install as any other operating system on the market today.

    Now that you know what Linux is and how good it is, there's one more thing we have to do - install Linux!

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  2. markit98

    markit98 New Member

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    Thanks for that information Rob, this is my first serious look at Linux so I am starting from the beginning
    Rob likes this.
  3. Muhammad Ali

    Muhammad Ali New Member

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    I have Centos live CD... It will save my configurations?
  4. alexaat

    alexaat New Member

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    No, live CD will revert to its original configuration every time the machine is rebooted.
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  5. ryanvade

    ryanvade Administrator Staff Member Staff Writer

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  6. Leslie_lau

    Leslie_lau New Member

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    A very good explanation for a beginner like me!
  7. Imad

    Imad New Member

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    Question is where to get linux from? Is it downloadable? What's the latest version?
    Thanks
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  8. ryanvade

    ryanvade Administrator Staff Member Staff Writer

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    The kernel by itself is from kernel.org The latest stable is 3.10.3 and the latest testing is 3.11-rc2. However this is just the kernel. For an entire GNU/Linux system you need to download a distro you like. Look here for some favorites: http://www.linux.org/resources/categories/linux-distributions.18/ I recommend Oz Unity for new users.
  9. Imad

    Imad New Member

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    Thank you ryanvade. I started downloading Linux mint 15 cinnamon 32-bit, u think its ok?
    rdarw and ryanvade like this.
  10. ryanvade

    ryanvade Administrator Staff Member Staff Writer

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    Frankly, I think Mint is crap. But it is nice for new users.
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  11. Virneto

    Virneto Member

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    Its not crap, but of course not everybody has to love it. I think you should try more than one distro and then see in which you feel more comfortable.

    To choose which to try, I’d say you could see top ten on DistroWach
    ryanvade likes this.
  12. Arun BIsoyi

    Arun BIsoyi New Member

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    what happen if i update my kernel ?
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  13. ryanvade

    ryanvade Administrator Staff Member Staff Writer

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    Depends. Normally you get speed increases, bug fixes, increase in support of newer hardware, security fixes, etc. But, updating the kernel manually is a tricky business. Like the old saying goes, if it ain't broke don't fix it.
  14. Double_O

    Double_O New Member

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    Hi guys,
    I'm using the new BeagleBone Black and want to run Ubuntu on it, Can anybody help me out and tell me where to start?
  15. ryanvade

    ryanvade Administrator Staff Member Staff Writer

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    This is not the appropriate thread. You need to start your own.
    rdarw likes this.
  16. Tarig Elhussein

    Tarig Elhussein New Member

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    Simple and an awesome explanation .. I wish i get into it fast!
    thanks Rob for the effort.
  17. harikrishna

    harikrishna New Member

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    it's been very good although u use a versatile language to explain
  18. copter

    copter New Member

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    I'm here exploring and know nothing about Linux. I have been told that this is not as succeptable to virus's and intrusions as windows (basically better security). Could you tell me about this or direct me to where I can go to learn about it? Thanks
  19. harikrishna

    harikrishna New Member

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    u want go for better security install one strong anti virus in it ...but linux is not all about security it awakes the computer greek in you it will give you an impression that u r machine is controlled by u...
  20. IsmirZone

    IsmirZone New Member

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    The fun starts here. I will admit I was lazy to try Linux in the past, feel a bit dumb not knowing; but never to late to learn.
    helleschade65, ryanvade and wurb1 like this.

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