Linux+: Linux Install 11 - Installation Troubleshooting The process of installing Linux can be troublesome at times, but usually it runs smoothly. Here are some items to keep in mind when troubles do arise. The first step before installation is to verify that your system meets the minimum requirements of your selected distro. Actually, for any installation, try to have more than the minimum requirements so you are not disappointed by the performance. If you do not meet even the minimum requirements, then do not try the installation; look for another distro that should meet your system requirements. Nothing is worse than downloading and setting up an ISO to start the install process and get a message specifying that your system does not meet the minimum requirements. At this point, you are back to square one. It is important to make sure you have a partition of adequate size ready or at least in an unallocated state on the hard disk. NOTE: Try to set up the partition beforehand by using a bootable CD of a partition utillity such as Gparted or even use Rescatux which includes Gparted. Make sure you use a file system type supported by the distro. For example, do not format the partition as ReiserFS4 if the distro does not support it. The next step is to get the ISO and burn it to a disk or use it on a bootable USB device. Here, your problem can arise that your CD\DVD-ROM is not set as bootable in the BIOS. Make sure you enable CD-ROM booting and set the CD-ROM higher in the boot order before the hard disk. If the ISO is placed on a USB device, make sure the BIOS not only supports USB booting, but that it is enabled and has a higher precedence than the hard disk. Another issue with the ISO is to open it in an archive program to view the contents before it. You need to make sure the image does contain the boot files. The following files should be present within the ISO: · GRUB or some bootloader (not necessary) · vmlinux file (vmlinuz when compressed) · initrd file If these files are not present in the ISO, it may be best to place the image on a USB device or a re-writable CD\DVD in case the disc is not what you need. If any Read Error occurs during installation, you may need to clean your CD\DVD drive. Another option is to clean the media itself or burn the ISO again at a lower speed. A Device Full error means you are out of space on your destination drive. You need a larger partition to accomplish the install. Another option may be that the partition already contained data. In this case, format the partition and start again. Do not place any data on the partition until the installation is completed. Another error may be File Not Found or Permission Denied Error. Here, the problem can be incorrect permissions set in the ISO. When accessed, the files have improper permissions set to be accessed during installation. Try a different version of the distro or a different distro altogether. Search the Internet for a repack of the ISO which should fix the problem. Two other options are Read Error or “Not in Gzip Format” while Installing Linux. These could be a media error, but are most likely corrupted compressed files. Try to download the ISO from a different site and try again. A Read_intr error can be caused by bad blocks. A utility such as Rescatux can be used to scan a disk for bad blocks. You could also encounter a problem where the installation hangs at a certain point. During the install, Linux will attempt to find and initialize your system's hardware. If a problem occurs, the system can stop responding. A message on the screen should give you a clue about what was occurring at the time of the hang. For example, if the line states something about the video card, then it should be a problem with your video card. The problem may be as simple as a conflict in the BIOS setup for the video adapter. Another option is to find a diagnostic utility which can detect when two devices have conflicting settings. For some higher end systems which contain SCSI devices you can encounter other problems not previously mentioned. It is possible to receive CD-ROM errors if the device does not contain a bootable disc. Make sure the media is present and bootable. Most other errors are from duplicate SCSI IDs, improper termination of the SCSI chain and device setting conflicts such as I/O address and the like. The major problem with SCSI is when the kernel does not detect the SCSI adapter or devices during the detection phase. While the installation is being performed, there are various screens you can check to watch the processes of the installation. The key combinations given may vary by distro as well as which combination displays what screens. The list is as follows: CTRL+ALT+F1 Installation dialogue CTRL+ALT+F2 Shell prompt CTRL+ALT+F3 Install logging messages CTRL+ALT+F4 System logging messages CTRL+ALT+F5 Messages not part of Installation or System logging CTRL+ALT+F7 Graphical User Interface screen NOTE: These keyboard shortcuts are for Red Hat systems. Other distros may only require ALT+F# while others may be CTRL+F#. If needed, look up the installation console keyboard shortcuts for the specific distro.